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Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

The United States of America has been through different industrialization phases, which manifested differently. The 16th century period saw the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The first phase of the Industrial Revolution entailed machinery inventions that affected the workforce and factories alike. The 18th century ushered in the secondary phase of the revolution. This phase led to an economic, social, and labor disruption. The aspects that resulted from the process of industrialization led to major changes in society as the citizenry pushed for different rights.  The Industrial Revolution increased efficiency, revenue, and unemployment rates, which led to different gender roles in society. The climax of these changes was marked in the petition for women to be registered as voters.

Up to the 1789 Era

Leeds Woolen Workers Petition, 1786

The invention of machines procured both positive and negative effects for all parties in the manufacturing industry. As observed, employees in various sectors that manufactured items from raw materials encountered the process of machinery invention. The factory owners were relieved because they could produce more than they did when relying on human labor. “…and as each machine will do as much work in twelve hours, as ten men can in that time do by hand, (speaking within bounds) and they working night-and-day, one machine will do as much work in one day as would otherwise employ twenty men”[1]. This comment that appeared in a newspaper in 1786 demonstrated the efficiency of machines, an aspect that employees acknowledged as well. Therefore, the factory owners made more revenue, which resulted from such inventions.

However, the same letter highlighted the concerns of the employees of Leeds, which was known as a center for wool production in Yorkshire. The letter highlighted the loss of jobs, which jeopardized their ability to fend for their families. Prior to the invention of machines, that could scribble, the factories relied completely on the workforce. This meant that the employees could earn a living and remain secure about their livelihoods. However, the sudden introduction of machinery created an imbalance as each took over ten to twenty men’s work[2]. This meant that the factories reduced their workforce drastically. The workers, in their letter to players in the wool manufacturing sector, requested the cessation of the use of machinery for the welfare of their employees. This action would assure the employees of jobs, a livelihood, and the ability to responsibly bring up their children. From a humanitarian perspective, the request was sensible because a lack of employment would result in a concentration of wealth among factory owners and the development of vices among the poor citizenry. However, from a business perspective, the machinery aided the process of attaining efficiency through increased volumes and led to higher revenue.

1789-1914 Era

Richard Guest: The Steam Loom (1823)

The steam/water loom was invented in 1785 by Rev. E. Cartwright. The process was sparked by a conversation with men from Manchester in 1784. During this period, Cartwright discussed Arkwright’s spinning machines, whose patent almost expired. Based on the information provided in the primary text, the spinning machinery marked an important period in America’s industrial revolution. It increased the production capacity of spinning companies. The account states that “…and so much cotton spun, that hands never could be found to weave it[3].  The spinning machines had enormous capacity, which surpassed the human resources. For this reason, more entities were expected to erect more mills as soon as the Arkwright’s patent expired. This part of the discussion highlights the attractive nature of the invention such that people who lacked any knowledge about spinning or weaving were willing to venture. “…they adduced arguments which I certainly was incompetent to answer or even to comprehend, being totally ignorant of the subject, having never at that time seen a person weave”[4]. The ability of the new machinery awed individuals, including Cartwright, before he understood how it worked. The ability of the spinning machines to produce more in a shorter time than humans changed the wealth dynamics significantly. The factory owners amassed more wealth as the replaced employees, especially women, and their children, wallowed deeper into poverty. The increased production capacity of the factories meant they sold more fabric than they had before. The income and revenues of factory owners increased while the labor structure changed significantly. The children and women were no longer needed at the factories. Therefore, they were left at home, as the men operated the looms. This shift significantly reduced the cost of labor and production overall.  However, the source omits the negative aspect associated with the invention; increased child labor. Children operated the looms leading to a backlash against the industrialization process. The result was the creation of labor laws to protect children[5]. Regardless, the steam loom changed social, economic, and institutional dynamics significantly in the spinning sector.

1914 to Present

Jane Addams: Why Women Should Vote, 1915

The Industrial Revolution changed the social and labor structure of American society significantly. Women who once worked in factories were forced to stay home due to a lack of jobs. The use of machinery to replace the workers initiated an endless cycle that saw women pushed back into the four walls of their homes. This led to the perception that women’s place was found in homes.” For many generations, it has been believed that a woman’s place is within the walls of her own home…[6]. This statement confirmed the position that the Industrial Revolution created for women. However, women’s effectiveness in the new position was affected by the complications of society and life. According to the source, the woman’s ability to retain a clean home and feed the family is dependent on external factors. For instance, living in the countryside exerts minimized difficulties in ensuring that family members are healthy. However, living in urban areas requires intervention from respective authorities to provide basic services that promote cleanliness, safety, and hygiene. The author highlights the need to involve women in the process of democracy through voting. This inclusion allows women to take part in the decision-making process regarding issues that affect their ability to perform their domestic roles. Therefore, the societal shift opened up an opportunity for women’s voices to be represented through voting.


The Industrial Revolution increased efficiency, revenue, and unemployment rates, which led to different gender roles in society. The climax of these changes was marked in the petition for women to be registered as voters. The first two eras, which occurred during the 16th and 19th centuries, document the adverse and positive effects of industrialization. The factory owners made more revenue due to increased production. The costs of production and labor were reduced significantly. However, employees suffered from job loss while women were pushed into the domestic spaces. The children who began to take up roles in the factories instigated the creation of policies against child labor. Eventually, women’s voting rights began to elicit interest to ensure that their domestic roles were complemented in the 20th century. These changes characterize America’s journey to today’s progressive nation.

Works Cited

Addams, Jane. 1915. Why Women Should Vote.

Guest, Richard. 1823. Compendious History of the Cotton Manufacture (Manchester 1823).

Harrison, J. F. C. 1965. Society and Politics in England, 1780-1960. New York: Harper & Row.

Moyer, E. 2016. The Industrial Revolution and the transformation to the modern energy system.

[1] Harrison, J. F. C. 1965. Society and Politics in England, 1780-1960. New York: Harper & Row.

[2] Harrison, J. F. C. 1965. Society and Politics in England, 1780-1960. New York: Harper & Row.

[3] Guest, Richard. 1823. Compendious History of the Cotton Manufacture (Manchester 1823).

[4] Ibid.

[5] Moyer, E. 2016. The Industrial Revolution and the transformation to the modern energy system.

[6] Addams, Jane. 1915. Why Women Should Vote.


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Primary Document Analysis Paper

Final Draft due date: FRIDAY, April 30, 2021

I. Purpose:

Students in HIST 1122 are expected to satisfactorily master the “area knowledge” about the History of Western Civilization since 1648. At the same time as they learn ‘just the facts’ about this history, students are also expected to practice a set of skills that can be transferred beyond the history classroom, to other courses at Gordon State (or beyond), as well as any job- or career.

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

Skills: This assignment will help you practice and master the following skills that are crucial to your success in this course, and which will also help you secure a job and find success in your career after school:

    1. Clearly state a thesis to be defended with evidence
    2. Logically organize your ideas to defend this thesis
    3. Clearly communicate (i.e. write) your ideas conveying information to defend this thesis
    4. Identify the (historical) significance of most or all events, people, or ideas relevant to this thesis or evidence you choose to introduce
    5. Apply understanding (i.e. compare and/or contrast) of multiple (historical) phenomena across temporal or geographic boundaries
  1. Knowledge: This assignment will also help you familiarize yourself with (and demonstrate to me your understanding of) the following areas of content knowledge:
    1. The Enlightenment, and/or
    2. The era of democratic revolutions, and/or
    3. The Ideologies of the 19th century, and/or
    4. The Industrial Revolutions, and/or
    5. European Imperialism, and/or
    6. The Age of the Two World Wars

II. Task:

  1. To complete this assignment, you will choose three (3) primary documents from either parts of our OER textbook or the Internet Modern History Sourcebook, then write a thesis- driven essay explaining what these particular documents help demonstrate about the history of Western Civilization from 1648 to the
    1. Sources: You should not need to conduct outside research to complete this assignment. All the information you need can be found in the either the OER textbook or the Internet Modern History Sourcebook course reader, and/or from other information included in the modules on our course D2L
      1. You can choose to use one or more document(s) that was assigned for you to read
      2. You can choose to use one or more document(s) that was not assigned for you to read,
      3. Stronger papers will probably make use of at least one unassigned document (but need not necessarily do so)

Steps: You should complete this assignment in several stages but you will only turn in the final product. However, good writing is usually the product of good pre-writing. Here are the steps I suggest you take to prepare the paper:

    1. Pre-writing (optional but highly recommended – you will not turn this in):
      1. Topic, source, and proto-thesis.
        • Brainstorm a brief description of a general topic that interests you (one that is covered by this course or an issue in the present-day that can be traced to the time period covered by this course).
        • Find three (3) primary sources in either our OER textbook or the Internet Modern History Sourcebook, one from the era up to 1789, one from the era 1789 to 1914, and one from the era 1914 to the present, which somehow relates to your chosen
        • Brainstorm a proto-thesis statement, explaining how these three sources together help illustrate something about your topic. Try to also articulate each document’s importance to its respective section of the paper (as you plan to write it).
        • Brainstorm an explanation of why your topic is
  1. Draft thesis statement, outline, preview of evidence,
    • After you have read each of the primary sources carefully, revisit the elements above and see if anything needs to be revised, changed, or otherwise
    • Sketch out a brief outline of the complete paper, and try to preview the quotations and other examples that you will use to support each section of the
    • You should figure out how to present a section for each primary source, identifying at least one direct quote and one other piece of evidence you will use from that source to substantiate your interpretation.
    • You should also indicate what important elements of context important for each
  1. Writing and revising (this is the part you will turn in):
    1. Rough
      • Your rough draft should be a thesis-driven essay, with an introduction, several body paragraphs, and a
      • You should use the structure of your outline (see above) to organize your body paragraphs to develop an argument, one that offers information from your three primary sources (see above).
      • You should also offer information from textbook or other relevant sources, in support of your thesis
      • You rough draft should be 1000-1250
      • Once you have written your rough draft, you should ask a friend to read it and make suggestions on what might need to be fixed – spelling errors, grammatical mistakes, more information to explain the argument or why your analysis is correct, and so
  1. Final
    • Take some time to make corrections to your rough draft. The final draft should follow the same expectations as your rough draft, but it should be polished and error-free (as much as you can make it).
    • Your final draft should be a thesis-driven essay, with an introduction, several body paragraphs, and a
    • You should use the structure of your outline (see above) to organize your body paragraphs to develop an argument, one that offers information from your three primary sources (see above).
    • You should also offer information from textbook or other relevant sources, in support of your thesis
    • You final draft should be 1000-1250 words.
    • Your final draft is due FRIDAY, APRIL 30,

III.   Submitting your paper:

  1. You will only turn in an electronic version of the paper, via the “Assignments” feature of our class’s D2L website. You will not turn in a printed
  2. Remember that the due date indicated above is suggestive and I will accept work turned in late for credit. However, you should not read this as license to procrastinate. As the end of the semester approaches, I will have correspondingly less and less time to devote to grading assignments turned in long after the suggested due date. (At the same time, I will likely be grumpier and grouchier as such assignments pile up and the clock runs down.) This means you should try your best to complete this paper assignments on time. If you know you will be late, please send me a brief e-mail to let me know you intend to complete the assignment. After you have done so, please send me another brief e-mail telling me, so that I can go in to D2L and grade your

IV.   Criteria for Success:

  1. Thesis statement. This must clearly state the idea(s) that you want to prove (by way of evidence) in your paper. This thesis statement should come near the end of the introductory
  2. You need to use specific, relevant, and well-chosen evidence to support your analysis of the document and convince me to accept your thesis. Your evidence should mainly come in the form of examples found in the document but it might be necessary to include details from other sources, too. Choose your evidence wisely, so that it lends the most weight to the thesis you are trying to prove.
  3. You must choose at least three primary documents to analyze (see above). Stronger papers might make use of more than three primary document but they need not necessarily do so. Stronger papers will also might make use of secondary source material beyond the lectures and/or textbook but, again, they need not necessarily do so.
    1. Using evidence from the primary documents. Your evidence may take the form of either direct quotes or paraphrased passages. Your paper needs to include a minimum of THREE (3) clear references to the primary documents you are
  4. Some of the primary documents have introductions to help you interpret them. You are welcome to refer to these introductions in your paper but doing so does NOT count as using the primary document itself. (See below for information on citing sources.)
  1. Direct quotations should not exceed 15% of the paper (approximately 150- 188 words). In other words, make sure that the paper still communicates your ideas about what this author had to say and does not simply regurgitate what they already
  2. Both direct quotations and paraphrased passages, as well as any information or ideas that you want to use but that you did not originally create, MUST be accompanied by citations giving proper credit to the original
  3. To cite evidence, use a footnote1 at the end of that sentence (or several sentences, if necessary). In the note at the bottom of the page, write the author’s name, an abbreviated title, and the page 2
    1. Using evidence from secondary sources. If you would like to consult the textbook, or another printed source of information, that is fine. Please include the author’s last name, an abbreviated title, and the page
    2. If you would like to consult electronic sources via the world-wide web that are NOT a part of the course materials, that is also fine. In this case, please include the name of the website’s author and an abbreviated title in your footnote. Then,

in your works cited page, please provide the author’s full name, the website’s full name, the article you referenced (if appropriate), the date the website was published, the complete URL, and the date you accessed the website.3

  1. a) If you choose to look beyond those materials assigned for this class, then in addition to this citation, you must include a works cited page that lists all sources used and “vets” all internet-based sources that were not provided as part of this course. To do this, include a short paragraph explaining why you think this source is credible. You may point to the author’s academic credentials, their professional qualifications, the sources they used, the institution publishing the website, or anything else that you think is relevant and lends believability to this author. Failure to “vet” each internet source you consult will result in points taken off your grade.

*If you are unsure about how to properly cite any sources, please e-mail me or make an appointment to talk to me during office hours and I will be happy to give you further guidance.

1 To create a footnote using Microsoft Word, place the cursor where you want the number to appear, then press CTRL+ALT+F to create the note.

2 For example, if you are using Jules Ferry’s Speech before the French National Assembly, you could simply put the following in your note: Ferry, Speech, 2.

3 Here is an example for how to cite an electronic source that I did not include in a lesson: Anne Applebaum, “Every Revolution is Different: The Arab Uprisings of 2011 are more like the Europe revolutions of 1848 – complicated and messy,” (February 21, 2011), (Accessed August 14, 2018).

  1. Plagiarism and Academic Dishonesty. When you upload your paper (or any part of it) to the D2L Assignments folder, it will automatically also submit your paper to for analysis of your paper’s textual similarity to other papers turned in here at Gordon State but also anywhere on the Internet. If you choose to plagiarize sources and I catch you, your paper will be subject to receiving an immediate
  1. Analysis and originality. You need to showcase your own, original analysis of these texts. This means you need to demonstrate a good understanding of these texts and their different contexts. When interpreting these texts you should make reasonable claims but you might also consider alternative
  2. Your paper needs to follow a logical organization. For the purposes of this paper, that means you need at least five paragraphs (an introduction that includes your thesis, at least three body paragraphs presenting evidence to support your thesis, and a conclusion reiterating and expanding on your thesis). Keep in mind that you may need more than five paragraphs in order to present all of your ideas, depending on what you are trying to say.
    1. Within the body paragraphs, you need to use topic sentences and transitions from one paragraph to the
    2. The order in which you present the evidence should convey the progression of a clear main
    3. You should avoid undue repetition of points you have already argued from one paragraph to the
  3. Style. You need to observe the proper stylistic guidelines of formal
    1. Pay attention to rules of grammar, punctuation, spelling, verb tense, passive voice, et cetera…
    2. Avoid use of first- or second person pronouns (e.g. I, me, we, us, you).
    3. Your final paper needs to be between 1000 and 1250 words
    4. Please include a title page with your name, the course name, a title, and the word count.
    5. Your pages need to be
    6. You need to double-space your
    7. Your paper needs to be written in Times New Roman, size 12

V.  Grading your paper

You will find a grading rubric, as well as several exemplars (papers written by students in previous semesters) available on the D2L module for this assignment. You are free to look at these papers as models of excellent work but they are not meant to limit your creativity. You are also free to look at the grading rubric I will use for your paper this semester, to have a better understanding of what I am looking for when I evaluate your work.

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