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Human Behavior and the Environment

Human Behavior and the Environment

Multidimensional Perspective

Case Formulation Table

Case Formulation Factors Biological Perspective Psychological Perspective Sociological Perspective
Predisposing Risk ·         Longstanding history of high blood pressure

·         Aging process physical complications

·         Insecure at her new daughter’s place in Brooklyn

·         Experience of feeling different at her daughter’s place, thus complaining about food

·         Not making any attempt to adjust to life in Brooklyn

·         Refusal to attempt to link with the senior citizens’ services and other social support initiatives

·         Refusal to carry out care duties that she was doing before moving to Brooklyn

·         Refusal to do daily personal activities

·         Social modeling of her daughter’s and son-in-law’s persistence in moving her to Brooklyn

·         Not connecting with social support activities and services in the community


Protective ·         Stable and concerned family, including her oldest daughter and her oldest son

·         Supportive children

·         Connectedness and belonging to her home in Alabama

·         Independence in Alabama

·         Enjoying independence at her home in Alabama

·         Safety and security at her home in Alabama

·         Doing daily personal activities before moving to Brooklyn was her protective factor

·         Living with her daughter and son-in-law and communicating with them

·         A friend visiting her at her home in Alabama

Precipitating Risk Eating less food Life self-reflection that she would be better at her home because either way, she is left alone at home  

Loss of connection with the social services communities

Protective Involvement with caring for daughter and son-in-law ·         Economic Security

·         Support would be available at all times

·         Connectedness with family, especially after her daughter comes home from work and during the weekends

Access to the support for senior citizens” services
Perpetuating Risk Doing any physical activity, such as making breakfast, hasdiminishedhed ·         Ongoing anger against her daughter and son-in-law for moving her

·         Doubting the lives of her daughter by moving her to Brooklyn

·         Her resentment towards being moved limits her ability to connect with services for these citizens as well as other social support activities

·         Her anger limits her ability to do personal activities

·         Social isolation

·         Loneliness

Protective Support is available often Involvement of a social service agent to help with her anger problems A supportive daughter who involves social services to help her mother
Protective Risk ·         Eating less

·         Refusing to do care duties

Verbally attacking her daughter and her son-in-law She wants to Alabama so she can be alone and independent
Protective ·         Availability of food that she needs

·         Availability of medical services during critical times

Has people she can talk to every day Caring daughter who is willing to work to address the issues that her mother is facing

Changing Risk Factors to Protective Factors

In order to address the risk of Mrs. Morgan not eating enough food, the human services professional can introduce social and emotional support. According to Schulz, Eden & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2016), in a study involving a stroke patient, the patient ate little, talked about feeling lonely, showed a problem with controlling their bowels, and was often worried and anxious. This study reported that such patients need more emotional support, especially from the home caregivers, by engaging in communication. This will encourage the patient to feel better and even be open to eating more. Another way to reduce the physical risk associated with old age complications is by involving Mrs. Morgan’s family in her medical and health care. Her daughter and the son-in-law can participate in medical tasks such as helping her take medications and adhere to treatment. According to Schulz, Eden & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2016), if the human services professional is not available and the patient is seriously ill, her family can manage some home procedures and remedies for issues such as nutrition and pressure sores.

To address the risks of verbal attacks and doubts about the husband’s motives, the human services professional provides counseling and constant communication services. Reinhard et al. (2008) found that neglect happens when the patient experiences unmanaged pain. Besides, they add that counseling often decreases the patient’s stress and helps them manage their feelings better. Reinhard et al. (2008) also found that when there is conflict in a family, assistance to the patient would be less. Therefore, the human services professional should work towards solving the disagreements between the patient and her daughter and son-in-law, even if it means returning her to Alabama to reduce the tension.

To address the risks of lack of linkage with social services activities and loneliness and social isolation, the human services professional can use therapy and mechanisms that involve the patient’s ideas, attitudes, reasoning, and beliefs. According to Fakoya, McCorry & Donnelly (2020), using a realist review model would allow the professional to discern what would work with Mrs. Morgan, in what circumstances it would work, and how it would work based on analysis of her beliefs, attitudes, and reasoning. More importantly, the human services professional should provide all the relevant information and alternatives. Morgan and how these alternatives could affect her health.


Schulz, R., Eden, J., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Family caregiving roles and impacts. In Families caring for an aging America. National Academies Press (US).

Reinhard, S. C., Given, B., Petlick, N. H., & Bemis, A. (2008). Supporting family caregivers in providing care. Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses.

Fakoya, O. A., McCorry, N. K., & Donnelly, M. (2020). Loneliness and social isolation interventions for older adults: a scoping review of reviews. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-14.


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In this assignment, you will have the option of reviewing one of two case studies: “Case A: Mrs. Morgan” or “Case B: El Centro” (located in your text on pages 41-43)
The multidimensional perspective is a theory that considers three basic dimensions of assessing human behavior and the social environment: biological, psychological, and social. Together, they are referred to as the biopsychosocial theory or multidimensional perspective. This theory includes multiple systems that are organized in a hierarchy of levels from the smallest (cellular) to the largest (social). These systems are in a constant state of interaction with each other and influence human behavior.

Human Behavior and the Environment

Human Behavior and the Environment

Assignment Directions

In this assignment, you will have the option of reviewing one of two case studies: “Case A: Mrs. Morgan” or “Case B: El Centro” (located in your text on pages 41-43). After reviewing one of these case studies, use the Unit 2 Assignment Template to incorporate the biopsychosocial perspective in relation to the 4Ps of case formulation: predisposing, preparing, pursuing, and protecting.

Please respond to the following:

List a risk factor and a protective factor (strength) in each of the biopsychosocial perspectives in relation to the 4 of case formulation.
A sample case study and completed template can be found on pages 63-66 of the textbook.
Select two risk factors within each of the three biopsychosocial perspectives. Provide a brief discussion (2-3 paragraphs) of how a human services professional can assist the client in changing all six risk factors to protective factors (strengths).

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