Environmental Public Health
According to the HealthyPeople.gov (2020) report, different factors can impact the health of a population, including social aspects, medical factors, behavior, genetics, and physical and environmental factors. Specifically, social determinants refer to the situations/conditions that influence the livelihood and well-being of people, including physical, economic, and social, as well as the settings, including neighborhoods, workplaces, places of worship, schools, and so on (Islam, 2019). These factors include public safety, social support platforms, job training, education quality, hospital access, job opportunities, and social cultures and norms. In that respect, this assignment aims to explore social health determinants that can impact the health of a population, as discussed in the video Social Determinants of Health, which is a contribution by the PHLMs and funded by the HHS. In particular, the objective is to identify the regions globally with the most significant mortality rates among children, identify the disparities in infant mortality and longevity by education and race, and the 2020 HealthyPeople’s social determinants of health.
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What area in the world has the highest child mortality rates based on the video presentation?
Assistant Professor Carolyn Cannuscio of the Family Medicine and Community Health at the University of Pennsylvania states that nearly 20 million kids die each year, often from preventable illnesses. About 8.8 million children 2008 aged below five years died from these preventable diseases – a decrease from 9.2 million and 12.7 million in 2007 and 1990, respectively (Cannuscio, 2020). Some areas with the most excellent child mortality rates are Africa and the Middle East, with Afghanistan leading the race. The other countries, all from Africa, include Burkina Faso, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Rwanda, Mali, Chad, and so on.
Describe the differences in longevity and infant mortality by race and education. Provide supportive information from the video presentation and your additional literature searches.
Cannuscio (2020) argues a strong correlation exists between infant mortality and life expectancy (longevity) based on education levels and race, especially in the United States. For example, regarding race and longevity, African American men are estimated to live an average of 6 years fewer than their white male counterparts. For education and longevity, Cannuscio (2020) highlights that people who do not complete their high school education look forward to surviving approximately seven years fewer than those with higher education credentials, such as a diploma, a degree, or more. This is supported by the CDC (n.d.) report, which shows that women at 25 years with no high school diploma in the U.S. expect to live for an additional 53.0 more years, while those with a high school certificate, a college degree, and a bachelor’s degree or further, expect to live for an additional 56.6, 58.0, and 58.8 years, respectively. This report was taken between 1996 and 2006.
On the other hand, concerning infant mortality per 1000 live births among mothers aged 20 years plus, a 2003-2005 report showed that the rates were more significant among black mothers than white mothers. The rates were also significantly higher among mothers who did not graduate in high school than those who graduated from high school or went to college and above. For example, for mothers who did not manage to complete their high school education, black women had the topmost infant mortality rates (15.1%), followed by American Indian women (10.1%), white women (9.1%), Native Hawaiian/Asian mothers (5.9%), and Hispanic women (5.4%), in that sequence. For those with college and more training, black women still recorded the most significant mortality rate (11.5%), followed by American Indians (6.5%), Hispanics (4.7%), whites (4.2%), and Asians and Native Hawaiians (3.8%).
The presentation described several Healthy People 2020 objectives related to social determinants of health. Identify one of these objectives and discuss the specific baseline, target, target-setting method, and data source.
One of the 2020 HealthyPeople social health determinants’ objectives is to “increase the proportion of schools with a school breakfast program” (Cannuscion, 2020). Firstly, the baseline or background is anchored on the 2006 school feeding arrangement, with 68.6% of all learning institutions in the U.S. having a functioning breakfast program. The target is to increase this figure to 75% by 2020, and the target-setting approach is to achieve a 10-percent improvement margin. The data sources include the CDC, SHPPS, and NCHHSTP.
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Cannuscio, C. C. (2020). Module 03: Social determinants – Part 1: What are the social determinants of health? [Video]. Public Health Learning Modules, Using Healthy People 2020 Improve Population Health. https://vimeopro.com/aptrmodules/phlm/video/76355201.
CDC. (n.d.). Data Table For Figure 32: Life Expectancy At Age 25, By Sex And Education Level: The United States, 1996 and 2006. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2011/fig32.pdf
HealthyPeople.gov. (2020). Social Determinants Of Health. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-of-health
Islam, M. M. (2019). Social Determinants Of Health And Related Inequalities: Confusion And Implications. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 11. doi 10.3389/push.2019.00011
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Module 3 – SLP
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
Before you begin this assignment, read through the Home page and the required readings. Specifically, view the Social determinants of health [Video presentation] at https://vimeopro.com/aptrmodules/phlm/video/76355201.
This Video is part of the Public Health Learning Modules project funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and developed by Temple University Department of Public Health and the Association for Prevention Teaching and Research as a free teaching resource for public health professionals.
For this component of the Session Long Project, you will explore and discuss how social determinants can influence population health. Your task is to submit a paper that responds to the following questions:
- What area in the world has the highest child mortality rates based on the video presentation?
- Describe the differences in longevity and infant mortality by race and education. Provide supportive information from the video presentation and your additional literature searches.
- The presentation described several Healthy People 2020 objectives related to social determinants of health. Identify one of these objectives and discuss the specific baseline, target, target-setting method, and data source.
Length: 2–3 pages.
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