How Have We Evolved in the Management Field
In the past, the management of people hardly existed; firm owners performed most of the work since they were not much informed about it. Conventional management thoughts date back to the 1700s when the imminence of management was under the responsibilities of Adam Smith. His perspective was that there could be increased productivity and efficiency when performing tasks with the division of labor and specialization. Various theorists came up with theories that helped determine production initiatives. The 20th-century methods have significantly contributed to management practices in today’s firms and resulted in high yields from the specified inputs. The focus on developing a timeline of five essential management theories/principle milestones over time is thus essential (Carpenter, 2010).
Why was this milestone significant for the period of time it was created? What was going on in the world of work that allowed the environment to know the time was right for this particular milestone?
Today’s people have unlimited resources to obtain knowledge about management on various platforms and theories. In the industrial revolution, everything was in a mess given that a management task was about one individual due to limited resources. The theory was recognized during the time of essential industrial development and evolution in the business realm. Henry Fayol, a senior director, established this theory in 1916 based on his individual understanding at that time. In 1988 Henri Fayol, a mining engineer, became the director of a mining company that had a financial catastrophe. He was employed so that he would make a better result for the company.
Which theorist “fathered” the principle? What were the signs of the time which led the theorist to develop the management concept?
Fayol developed 14 principles that turned the business around from what it was in its previous reign as a mining company (Sniderman, 2012). These principles were evidence that if the policies were followed, companies would do best in their production. He focused on management’s primary functions, including planning, controlling, coordinating, organizing and commanding. By following the tasks intended for management, the firm began running efficiently. Fayol’s theory had some limitations since it concentrated much on construction and manufacturing companies. In high-tech companies, his argument at times seemed to be very much out of date.
In 1911, Frederick Winslow Taylor established this principle, also known as time and motion study. He was branded as the father of scientific management. The theory was implemented mainly by the public part management, where group associates were used to using working hours for self-activities and excessive movements. Taylor found that the welfare of workers in his shop led to losses or profits for the firm. Taylor developed a principle of management that focused on saving time and money. He stated that each aspect of the business that was not useful should be eliminated to cut down the cost of production in the firm. The idea introduced by Taylor had an immediate impact and was rejected by many who did not like the change that was impacted. The scientific management theory was justly had limitations since it discouraged the existence of manual work. Teamwork was also discouraged since the scientific management theory focused more on the production side as compared to the labor section. Taylor’s principles of management were published in the year 1911.
Frank Gilbreth, another theorist, is viewed as the father of management engineering. He ascertained that the variation in worker productivity leads to a display of the quality of each worker in a firm. He studied their motion to find the best procedure to do bricklaying, initiating his work of variation to improve the performance and quality of the work. After seeing the best process, he was able to get quality and improved production intensely. (Ricci, 2012). Later Gilbreth came up with his own company and used the slogan “speed work,” focusing on doing away with wastage in his company and total cost reduction. He later moved to Germany, where he started pursuing industrial processes and machinery during world war I. During this time, he implemented his principle of speed work which improved the services in treating injured soldiers. He enabled fast operations where the nurse helped the surgeon with tools during operations than doing the work alone. Rather, the limitations included reducing the change in the workplace to retain efficient results, focusing on the added study of change and getting a full understanding of the theory (Ricci, 2012).
Another theorist, Peter Drucker, contributed to present-day management by developing modern management ideas. Peter Drucker believed that a business is a human-driven enterprise that could be profitable and socially responsible. In this regard, he concentrated much on firm management, emphasizing moral acts and adherence to the code of ethics when working. The theory title (modern management) came up because, in today’s business world, morals and ethics in business are taught in many institutions. Drucker created the SMART (Smart, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-related) objectives that enable the firm to know whether employment satisfies all business requirements. Drucker believed in the decentralization of the work in a firm. He went on to elucidate that management cannot perform all the tasks alone, and no one is perfect.
What are the highlights and limitations of the theory/principle?
His theory was, however, criticized, and various limitations associated with it were drawn. It was noted that this theory did not apply to small businesses but worked perfectly in large organizations. The objectives of this theory managed to take root in the firms that have adopted long-term strategies.
In the period between the 1980-the 1990s, Tom Peter transformed the way people think about management in the current world by developing a management model. In the 1970s, his research helped develop the 7-s model. It focused more on the shared values, staff, system, strategy, structure, skills and style. Tom Peter’s model helped in mending up the American economy by playing a role in the economy’s recovery from recession. His theory majored on customers and actions taken to improve a business. The 7-s model stipulates this theory’s characteristics to produce quality and efficient management of a firm potentially. In early 1970 this theory was of much value, and later during 1980 – 1990, many firms adopted the management skills given out in theory. It has helped in enhancing teamwork and the production of high-quality products. Tom Peter’s theory is still in use, thus the name modern management theory. Upon finding its workability, he examined forty-three companies that resulted excellently, thus becoming the best and perfect management theory (“Tom Peters,” n.d.).
Management timeline is now advanced since the above pioneers have enabled the current world to have references on how to perform management practices. As discussed in the introductory part, some years back, there were limited resources on management, but with the help of the presented theories, a lasting solution might have been found. Consequently, the approaches have helped solve recession and inflation scenarios in the economy.
Carpenter. (2010). Principles of Management: Ver. 1.1-Access 12th. Flat World Knowledge.
Cramer, M. (2011, March). Retrieved from http://www.business.com/management/management-theory-of-peter-drucker-key-terms/
Henri Fayol’s Principles of Management – From MindTools.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm
Kosmic Journey: Peter Drucker: Three Criticisms of His Work. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kosmicjourney.blogspot.com/2005/11/peter-Drucker-three-criticisms-of-his_21.html
McGrath, R. (2014, July 30). Management’s Three Eras: A Brief History. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2014/07/managements-three-eras-a-brief-history
Peter F. Drucker – Drucker School of Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://drucker.cgu.edu/about-drucker/peter-f-drucker/
Ricci, T. (2012, May). Retrieved from https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/construction-and-building/frank-bunker-gilbreth
Sniderman/ASME.org, D. (2012, June). Frederick Winslow Taylor. Retrieved from https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/manufacturing-processing/frederick-winslow-taylor
Taylorism and Scientific Management – from MindTools.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_Taylor.htm
The 1980s – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/1980s
Time and Motion Studies: Opportunities and Challenges – pharmaphorum. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://pharmaphorum.com/views-and-analysis/time-and-motion-studies-opportunities-and-challenges/
Tom Peters. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mbsportal.bl.uk/taster/subjareas/busmanhist/mgmtthinkers/peters.aspx
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Week 2 Paper: How Have We Evolved in the Management Field?
A 3-5 page paper is due in Week 2. The paper will consist of 3-5 pages of content, a cover page and a reference page. The total page count with the cover page and the reference page should be 5-7 pages.
Your paper should include an introduction and conclusion that summarize the contents of the entire paper.
Your paper should be written in proper APA format. This link will take you to the section of the APUS library that can assist you with formatting:
Paper topic: How Have We Evolved in the Management Field?
Based on your readings and research, Develop a timeline of five key management theory/principle milestones over time. Please address the following questions for each of the milestones you elect to include on your timeline:
- Why was this milestone significant for the period of time it was created? What was going on in the world of work that allowed the environment to know the time was right for this particular milestone?
- Which theorist “fathered” the principle? What were the signs of the time which led the theorist to develop the management concept?
- What are the highlights and limitations of the theory/principle?