Need help with your Assignment?

Get a timely done, PLAGIARISM-FREE paper
from our highly-qualified writers!

Boxing Motions Kinematics and Kinetics

Boxing Motions Kinematics and Kinetics

Boxing is a rigorous combat sport involving non-symmetrical and dynamic movements of the rear and front arms to attack or defend as circumstances demand (Dinu et al., 2020). The boxer uses the front hand, which is the closest to the target, to provide the greatest speed, while the highest punching force is provided by the rear hand, which is furthest from the target. Boxers depend on strength, stamina, speed, and coordination to evade their opponent’s punches while they impact them. For a successive performance, the boxer is required to deliver accurate punches above the belt without being punched back. During the fight, the boxers also aim to touch their opponent’s optimal target to knock them out. Knockout is the optimal goal in a match, and boxers increase their punch’s impact, ultimately resulting in a knockout power (Dinu et al., 2020). As a result, boxers use various motions to score points and win the match. These motions, jab, hook, and uppercut, as well as how kinematics and kinetics can be used to evaluate boxing, are explained below.

Do you need help with your assignment ? Get in touch with us.

The first motion is the jab, a straight and quick punch thrown by the lead hand. The jab punch comes about by rotating the shoulder to extend the arm forward and generate power from the torso and legs (Defense, 2022). The motion of the punch starts with a quick arm extension then, followed by a shoulder rotation and a weight transfer to the front foot from the back foot. The lead arm is snapped out with a slight pivot of the shoulder and hip. The shoulder is rotated in a way that the punch lands with the palm down, and the arm quickly snaps back into the ready position. The jab punch travels in a straight line while the elbow does not stick out away from the body while performing the punch. The use of the punch is to keep a distance and create combinations while disrupting the opponent’s rhythm (Defense, 2022).

The Second motion is the hook. The hook is a power punch normally thrown from the front or rear arm and works well in combinations. It is a curved punch that involves a rotational movement of the torso and hips, producing power from the main muscles. The power of a hook punch is generated from the movement of the hip and shoulder rather than the arm movement. The hook punch motion starts with the lead foot inside rotation, followed by a torso and hips rotation while the arm is brought in a curved path across the body. The elbow is raised as the boxer turns so that the punch lands with the arm parallel to the ground and the palm faces towards the chest. The hook is an effective punch for directing the body and head of the opponent from the side, and it can be used to bring authoritative blows (Defense, 2022).

The third movement is the uppercut. An uppercut is an upward punch that a lead or rear arm can throw. It is delivered from a close position and usually targets the opponent’s body or chin. It entails a combination of vertical and rotational movements producing power from the hips, core muscles, and legs (Defense, 2022). The punch motion starts from the torso’s slight rotation and a knee bend, followed by an arm explosive skyward thrust extending from an upward path from a lower position. The uppercut punch is very effective for giving powerful blows from below, mostly against opponents attempting to avoid a clinch or crouching, catch the opponent by surprise, or counter punches from opponents (Defense, 2022).

Kinematics and kinetics are branches of biomechanisms. Kinematics explains points, systems of bodies, and body motions without paying attention to the forces that cause the motion. On the other hand, kinetics explains where kinematics originates, specifically the relation between motion and the torques that cause the motion (Reznik & Simmons, 2020). Kinematics is described by the use of displacement, acceleration, and velocity. Displacement is the straight-line distance between where the body ends up and where it started, while velocity is the rate of displacement change. Acceleration is measured as the rate at which velocity changes with time (Reznik & Simmons, 2020). In boxing, the observed kinematics characteristics are joint angles, velocities, and punch velocity (Stanley et al., 2018). On the other hand, kinetics descriptors include force, torque, and impulse. Force is a push or a pull with a direction and magnitude hence a vector. Torque is the product of the distance between the point of the axis of rotation and force application and the force applied. Impulse is the effect of force acting over time on an object (Reznik & Simmons, 2020). In boxing, the ground reaction force is the common kinetic characteristic observed (Stanley et al., 2018).

Kinematics is very essential in boxing and can be used in the evaluation of the boxers by the coaches. We learn to punch through kinematics, and joint velocities require a proximal-to-distal sequencing arrangement that begins with the lower limbs and travels distally through the pelvic girdle, trunk, and upper limb before climaxing at the fist, causing fist acceleration towards the opponent (Stanley et al., 2018). In punching techniques, rapid joint rotations generate proximal-to-distal sequencing and successive velocities. Fist velocity has been found to be dependent on the acceleration path distance to the target. This makes the hook punches have greater velocities than jab punches because of the longer acceleration pathway that helps the production of greater fist velocities before impact (Stanley et al., 2018). Kinematics of punches application by athletes and trainers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of their techniques and identify improvement areas and overall performance optimization.

On the other hand, kinetics is also crucial in evaluating and training boxers. The rear leg produces a force that contributes significantly to rear-hand punches performance, while the lead leg force substantially contributes to jab fist velocity. According to experiments, uppercuts produce greater peak lead leg resultant ground reaction force value than hook and straight punches due to the high vertical trajectory. Also, it is observed that all rear punch techniques had a higher ground reaction than the lead punch techniques; hence they are more important (Stanley et al., 2018). The study of punch kinetics helps trainers and athletes assess punch effectiveness on the grounds of force transfer from the lower body to the fist and power outputs. Furthermore, this drives the boxers to develop strength and conditioning exercises that improve punching power and reduce the risk of injuries.


Defense, U. S. D. of. (2022). The U.S. Marine Manual for Close Combat Fighting. In Google Books. DigiCat.

Dinu, D., Millot, B., Slawinski, J., & Louis, J. (2020). An Examination of the Biomechanics of the Cross, Hook, and Uppercut between Two Elite Boxing Groups. Proceedings, 49(1), 61.

Reznik, J. E., & Simmons, J. (2020). Rehabilitation in Spinal Cord Injuries. In Google Books. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Stanley, E., Thomson, E., Smith, G., & Lamb, K. L. (2018). An analysis of the three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics of maximal effort punches among amateur boxers. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 18(5), 835–854.


We’ll write everything from scratch


Week 3
Pick a sport (Boxing) and describe 3 different motions involved in the activity. How would kinematics and kinetics be used to evaluate this activity? Be sure to distinguish the difference between the two concepts.

Boxing Motions Kinematics and Kinetics

Boxing Motions Kinematics and Kinetics

Reading Assignment:
Burkett, B. (2018). Applied Sport Mechanics (4th ed.). Human Kinetics Publishers.

Chapters: 3
pages 29-40

Lecture notes:
Slide 1
In this lecture, we will be covering the fundamentals of human motion, mechanical terms and apply these concepts to resistance training and sport measurements.
Slide 2
In this lecture we will be discussing human motion and the mechanical terms used to describe movement. Biomechanics measure and interpret movement by studying the human biological principles.
Kinematics and kinetics are movement classifications that are key features in interpreting sport mechanics. The principles of linear and angular motion define the movement of an object. We will exemplify the application of biomechanics through examples of different types of motion and resistance training.
Slide 3
Simply put, kinematics explains the mechanics behind human movement.
This involves the pattern of how various body parts contribute to distance, velocity, and acceleration.
The meaning of kinetics should not be confused with kinematics as it explains the forces behind movement. In short, it looks at how the movement is created, the cause and effect. This meaning can be interpreted by looking at factors such as force, friction, and torque.
Now, the difference between kinematics and kinetics is that kinematics is focused on the movement itself while kinetics is centered on the cause and effect forces.
Slide 4
Kinematics and kinetics are used to explain and give insight into human motion in both linear and angular contexts.
There are three ways the movement of an object can be evaluated:
Linear – in a straight line
Angular – in a circular fashion
General motion – mix of linear and angular
Just as the term suggests, linear motion illustrates a setting where movement manifests in a straight line, whereas angular.

Slide 5
Linear motion can also be referred to as translation. This terminology should only be used when all parts of the object or all body parts of the athlete move the same distance, in the same direction, and in the same period.
When looking at linear motion, translation rarely occurs. This is because the athlete’s limbs or body parts are not always moving at the same rate or in the same direction. An example of this would be a runner sprinting in a 500-meter dash. The shortest distance to accomplish this is the straight line which would be characteristic of linear movement. However, the sprinting movement is created through a rotary motion of the legs. The athlete’s limbs pivot at the joints which move the body in a straight line. While this exemplifies linear motion, this example would not be a translation.
Slide 6
Angular motion involves kinematics and kinetics that are used to describe motion in a rotary or circular fashion.
Examples include athletes rotating, spinning, swinging, circling, turning, rolling, pirouetting, somersaulting, and twisting.
These angular movements specify an athlete or object is turning within an angle or a number of degrees.
Here are a few examples that introduce the angular aspect of the movement:
Quarter turns at a 90-degree angle
Half turns at a 180-degree angle
Full turns, also known as revolutions, are multiples of 360-degree angles.
Slide 7
All of the scenarios we just mentioned demonstrate angular motion is produced when movement happens around an axis. Think of the athlete’s body as a complex structure of joints that work as an axis for movement, like the hinges on a door.
For example, the ankle works as an axis for the foot movement. The hip is the axis for the leg, the knee for the lower leg, and so on throughout the body.
The human arms and legs have the most evident rotary motion because are the largest and produce the most force.
Slide 8
Statics and dynamics are both important subdivisions of biomechanics. Static is explained by motion which is in a constant state of movement. This is either constant velocity or, alternatively, no motion when at rest because the state of movement remains the same.
Dynamics examines motion that is going through variation, meaning it is changing. Dynamics addresses things such as increasing an athlete’s velocity. Keep in mind that acceleration and deceleration may be influenced by changes in motion.
Slide 9
Resistance training uses some form of mechanical advantage or disadvantage to provide a load to the athlete. Athletes who perform these exercises overload the musculoskeletal system in order to strengthen their body. Once the target overload is achieved the human body will heal stronger and quicker, creating the desired outcome for the training regimine. Athletes performing resistance training can ensure their safety by making use of a spotter. While not required, it can be an added layer of movement observation to ensure optimal execution of movement.
The following devices are used for resistance training:
– Free weights
– Isometric resistance
– Machine weight exercises
– Variable machine devices
– Non-weight resistance
Slide 10
Strength and conditioning programs use weight training machines as the safest starting point for an athlete to develop proper form and movement. They are also known as the pin-weight setup. The equipment is often characterized by metal plates which are attached by a pulley system to an attachment handle that is used to move the resistance. The level of resistance in the machine varies by the position of the pulleys and weight selection. Instead of having a free range of motion and room for poor technique, the weight machine provides a path where the athlete just has to push or pull the weights. This ensures safe and effective movement given that the athlete follows the defined resistance exercise.
Slide 11
Free weight exercise is not connected to a machine while training. When the athlete is able to move freely in almost any direction, this training generates a constant amount of resistance based on the load effect. The athletes positioning of the free-weight may cause differences in the force of gravity. Free weight exercise can be manipulated in order to respond to the forces of gravity when working in different orientations. This simply means that there are a wide variety of exercises that can be performed to target specific muscles. When athletes lift weights against gravity, they need to produce forces from inside the muscles to conquer the weight by executing the movement. On the other hand, if the athlete is lifting a weight that is in motion with gravity the length of movement needs to be controlled and eventually stopped.
Slide 12
Full range of movement is needed in both machine-weight and free-weight setup. Isometric exercises target a specific anatomical range by positioning the body to hold the resistance. Essentially the athlete is beginning at one point of maximum anatomical range of motion and then moving through the anatomical range of movement.
Holding a leg squat at a 90-degree angle for a certain time frame is an example of this exercise.
Slide 13
The variable resistance weight machines involve a series of cables attached to a load of weight. In this typical machine setup, it involves the third class lever system, which is by far the most common. While performing a bicep curl, as the weight lifts the distance changes and the effort needed to move the weight increases. The camber is used to change the lever arm distance and increases the amount of work needed to move the weight.
Slide 14
Hydraulic exercise machines use other mechanical forms of resistance such as hydraulics, pneumatics or air resistance and manual brakes. For example, when the athlete pumps the hydraulic fluid moves through the chamber the size of internal openings gets decreased and creates resistance. Pneumatic exercise machines have similar rules to the hydraulic machine. The only difference is the pneumatic exercise machine needs air rather than hydraulic oil to create resistance. Manual brake machines take advantage of some type of clutch or a brake which generates resistance when the athlete performs exercise.
Slide 15
Sports mechanics are linked to resistance exercise by the outcome which is measurement of the movement. In this present day, we use devices, tools, and apps to measure what is going on within sports mechanics. However, athletes need to be self-assured that the measurement they are given is precise. This statement is important because new technology is constantly emerging and athletes need to be cognizant of the reliability. Always remember, quantitative output distinguishes measurements while qualitative output explains the aspect of performance. Determining the desired format would depend on whether you are seeking numerical measurement or performance evaluation, or a combination of both.

Slide 16
The most meaningful use of sports mechanics is for reviewing performance level. This information lets the coach know if a certain approach or exercise is working, and if the athlete is improving in performance. Focusing attention on a specific performance and understanding how it was achieved will give measurements that can be used for future improvement. Causes of injuries from sports can also be diagnosed by use of measurement. Finally, measurements can be used to predict athletic potential and areas of opportunity.

National Institute of Health – A U.S. governmental organization with current research dedicated to understanding, treating, and preventing infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. The following link is dedicated to Immune System Research and includes studies on how the body targets invading microbes, infected cells, and tumors. According to NIH, the combination of new technology and expanded genetic information reveals how the body protects itself from disease, allowing scientists to develop new strategies for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases. to an external site.

Order Solution Now