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Understanding Autism- Characteristics Diagnosis Educational Services and Assistive Technologies

Understanding Autism- Characteristics Diagnosis Educational Services and Assistive Technologies

The defining characteristics of Autism

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined as a disability that occurs during a child’s development. Its main effects occur in the brain and tend to affect normal brain functions. The principal areas that are affected include social communication abilities and restricted/repetitive behaviors. Some of the unusual behaviors that people with ASD exhibit include communication difficulties. Individuals who suffer from ASD are incapable of efficient verbal and nonverbal communication. Their inability to understand other people when they speak fast and use complex language stems from this element (CDC, 2021). During most times, ASD individuals rely on their behaviors to communicate their feelings, needs, dislikes, and wants, which is critical for all human beings. Visual aids can be used for enhancing communication because ASD individuals understand images, pictures, drawings, or written words better. This aspect makes social connections challenging for individuals who are diagnosed with ASD.

As regards restricted and repetitive behaviors, individuals with ASD demonstrate inflexible tendencies. They also have difficulties coping with changes. The need to change focus or action tends to cause intense distress. This means that their planning and independence are limited. Some of the repetitive behaviors that such individuals exhibit include rocking back and forth, repeating phrases, and repeatedly checking time. The restrictive interests include maps, the universe, a specific animal, or the weather. These interests and behaviors vary from one person to the next. They may be used to initiate communication or build rapport with individuals. This is because they spark a genuine interest in the individuals. The difficulty is apparent when the individual is required to switch interest to another object (CDC, 2021).

Other tendencies include the inability to maintain eye contact, failure to respond to their names by the age of nine months, lack of facial expressions, and inability to play simple and interactive games by the first year of life. In addition, such children do not use gestures such as waving goodbye by the time they reach one year. They also show little or no interest in others or the activities they engage in. They are unable to pretend during play and exhibit trouble when comprehending the feelings of other people. At the age of two years, they are unable to understand when others are hurt. Other characteristics include a delay in language, cognitive, learning, and movement development. They tend to be hyperactive and exhibit unusual eating behaviors. Their moods and emotional reactions are unusual, and they may be fearful or lack fear at all. Their anxiety, worry, and stress tend to be excessive. Biological aspects that may be exhibited include gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, seizures, and epilepsy (CDC, 2021).

Assessment tools and processes used for diagnosis

Diagnosis of ASD is essential, especially if done at an early age. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), it is crucial to screen all children for any developmental disabilities as well as delays. This should be done during the regular visits to the well-child appointments. The screening tools that can be used in health facilities include

Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ)

Communication and Symbolic Behaviors Scales (CSBS)

Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)

Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT)

Screening Tool for Autism in Toddlers and Young Children (STAT)

The diagnostic tools are used together when assessing ASD in children. The primary sources of information during the assessment include parents/ caregivers and professionals. The tools include

Autism Diagnosis Interview-Revised (ADI-R)

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule -Generic (ADOS-G)

Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)

Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-second edition (GARS-2)

The Diagnostic Criteria for 299.0 autism spectrum disorder is a critical tool for the diagnosis of the condition. It establishes the severity of the condition based on an individual’s behaviors (CDC, 2020).

Services provided to promote a student’s development toward meeting the IEP goals

The Individualized Education Plan (IEP) creates a basis for special education. It allows the special education instructors to individualize the process of learning. To ensure that the IEP goals are achieved, the instructors must modify their instructional strategies to meet the learners’ needs. The strategies chosen for delivery must be efficient and customized to the learners’ needs. In the case of struggling learners, additional instructions are necessary for specific content or topics. Finally, providing instructional time is critical in ensuring that learning opportunities are created and utilized.

Assistive technologies are essential in enhancing the learners’ process of gaining new knowledge and skills. These include pencil grips, computers, iPads, switches, and picture communication systems. These technologies ease the learning process and enable children to achieve their IEP goals more efficiently (Office of Special Education Programs, 2014). The set goals are used to assess the learners’ progress periodically, allowing for adjustments.

Annotated Bibliography

CDC. (2020). Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Healthcare Providers. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/hcp-screening.html

This website provides verified information that is related to the diagnosis and screening processes. The CDC website is reliable because the governmental agency has access to updated information about Autism. The corporate author discusses the habitual screening that should take place when a child visits the wellness clinics. This recommendation is expected to increase the likelihood of discovering the condition at an early age, increasing efficiency and easing the treatment process. The information on the website is ideal for healthcare providers, instructors, parents/caregivers, and policymakers. It plays a vital role in sensitizing the readers about the condition and the recommended tools for diagnosis and assessment.

CDC. (2021). Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html

The online resource provides detailed information about the signs and symptoms of Autism. It addresses various aspects, including the social, communication, and interaction processes and tendencies. Using this resource provides critical information that is easily understood by various audiences. The information is essential because it informs the populations about elements they should look out for in children—these details alert parents, caregivers, healthcare providers, and instructors. As a result, the process of diagnosis and screening improves as more ASD patients are discovered in good time. Therefore, the online resource is a reliable and credible source of information that is related to the symptoms and characteristics of individuals with ASD.

Office of Special Education Programs. (2014). Guidelines for Serving Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Educational Settings.

This report is compiled by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). The resource provides varied information about Autism. It begins with the definition of the condition, education of individuals with ASD, evaluation processes, IEP development, and behavioral support. For this particular text, the report provides information about IEPs and assistive technologies. This information is helpful for instructors, researchers, learners, curriculum developers, and caregivers/parents. The information provides a clear perspective regarding the learning needs of individuals with ASD. Such an understanding reduces the perception that ASD learners are difficult or impossible to handle in an educational setting. Most importantly, it creates an ideal learning platform for individuals with ASD by ensuring that the concerned stakeholders have the necessary information.

References

CDC. (2020). Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Healthcare Providers. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/hcp-screening.html

CDC. (2021). Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html

Office of Special Education Programs. (2014). Guidelines for Serving Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Educational Settings.

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Question 


Write a 5-7 page paper describing the defining characteristics of Autism, the assessment tools and process used to diagnose it, and the specific services provided to promote a student’s development toward meeting the IEP goals.

Understanding Autism- Characteristics Diagnosis Educational Services and Assistive Technologies

Understanding Autism- Characteristics Diagnosis Educational Services and Assistive Technologies

Make sure to include assistive technologies and how progress may be assessed. Include an annotated bibliography with your sources of information.

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