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Treaties Affecting Outer Space

Treaties Affecting Outer Space

“Outer Space Treaty of 1967” and “The Moon Treaty of 1979”: Analysis on whether these treaties are still practical in the 21st Century, or if they require revision?

Since the innovation of aviation and the industry’s evolution to modern-day advancements, there has been a series of international treaties that govern space exploration. Among the most phenomenal treaties are the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and The Moon Treaty of 1979. Accordingly, the Outer Space Treaty was signed in 1967 by the United Nations and has remained a crucial guideline in outer space exploration even in the modern-day constitution of outer space exploration (Stuart, 2017). The Moon Treaty of 1979 was signed to oversee the undertakings of all States on the moon and additional celestial bodies (Howard, 2017). The treaty declares the moon and its natural resources the shared heritage of humankind.

Although the treaties were effective and have been ratified across several countries in the world, challenges have arisen due to the changing dynamics of space exploration, which necessitates revising the treaties. According to Stuart (2017), the significant challenge associated with the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 is the fact that the treaty focuses on the countries only. Thus, most private companies have made claims about celestial territory since they are not countries, justifying claims that the treaty is not subject to national appropriation. The treaty requires revision to rectify the modern-day shortfalls associated with claiming the celestial territory. Besides, according to the article by Howard (2017), the Moon Treaty may be regarded as a failed treaty and has not been in use. Due to the treaty’s restrictions that could dissuade any practical commercial or national use of celestial bodies and outer space and its resources, the treaty also needs revision.


Howard, J. (2017, August 28). Notes on the Moon Treaty. Retrieved from

Stuart, J. (2017, January 27). The Outer Space Treaty has been remarkably successful – but is it fit for the modern age? Retrieved from


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Treaties Affecting Outer Space

Treaties Affecting Outer Space

Read the following articles addressing the two space treaties: “Outer Space Treaty of 1967” and “The Moon Treaty of 1979”:

The Outer Space Treaty Has Been Remarkably Successful – but Is It Fit for the Modern Age?/The Conversation (Links to an external site.)
Notes on the Moon Treaty/James Howard (Links to an external site.)
Submit a discussion post to answer the question: Are both of these treaties still viable in the 21st Century, or do they need revision? Reply to at least two of your classmates’ posts.

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