Need help with your Assignment?

Get a timely done, PLAGIARISM-FREE paper
from our highly-qualified writers!

The Relationship between Congress and the President

The Relationship between Congress and the President

The relationship between the US president and Congress is characterized by separation of powers and checks and balances. Although not static, the relationship has largely adhered to the principle of separation of powers from the age of America’s founding fathers. The framework of separation of powers has played a significant role in aiding the functioning of the federal government. Other factors influencing the relationship between the presidency and Congress include officeholders, the political climate, and control of the two chambers. The relationship is characterized by confrontation, cooperation, and negotiation, reflecting the complex US political system.

US Congress Structure and Makeup

According to Han & Han (2012), Congress comprises the Senate and the House of Representatives. Every state elects senators and representatives who represent them in Congress. The two houses have distinct functions and are structured differently according to the Constitution. However, they work together in legislation matters since every bill must be passed in both houses before becoming law.

Differences between the House of Representatives and Senate

Senators are elected to represent states, whereas House representatives represent respective districts. The number of districts in a state depends on population size. Another difference between the bicameral houses revolves around leadership. On the other hand, the House of Representatives is headed by a powerful speaker who is in charge of the House Calendar (Han & Han, 2012). The speaker decides what legislation will be debated and when. The speaker also controls house rules. However, the Senate does not have the seat of speaker. Instead, the leader of the majority and leader of the minority consult to decide the house schedule. Currently, the Senate has 100 members, whereas the House of Representatives has 435 voting members (Han & Han, 2012). Another difference is the term of Congress members. House members’ term expires after every two years, whereas senators are elected for six-year terms.

How Bills Become Law

According to Congress of the United States (2010), passing a bill to become law begins once a member of Congress introduces it on the floor of either house. Next, the bill is moved to the relevant house committee for consideration and amendment. If the bill passes the committee stage, it is moved to the floor for debate. A majority vote sends the bill to the other chamber. Next, the bill is introduced in the other chamber, and a similar procedure is followed. If differences arise between the two houses, a conference is called to reconcile the differences and create a uniform bill. Next, the bill is presented to the president for signing. If the president vetoes the bill, Congress may override the veto through a two-thirds majority vote. The bill becomes law if signed by the president or if Congress successfully overrides the presidential veto and becomes part of the US code.

Powers Granted to Congress and the President in the Constitution

Article I of the US Constitution grants Congress powers to enact legislation to declare war, confirm or reject presidential appointees, and significant investigative powers. The Constitution also grants Congress powers to create necessary laws that may help any part of the government to perform its duties (Congress of the United States, 2010). On the other hand, the Constitution grants the president veto powers to override Congress’s decisions. Also, the president has the power to appoint cabinet members, judges, and other key government positions (Ketcham, 2006). Other presidential powers originate from existing laws, empowering the president to issue executive orders, although future presidents or courts may overturn them.

Checks and Balances between the President, Congress, and Judiciary

The concept of checks and balances is designed to prevent any of the three arms of government from becoming too powerful. Firstly, Congress may impeach the president if the president exhibits serious violations of the Constitution (Han & Han, 2012). Congress also controls the national budget and may withhold or allocate funds to various government projects. On the other hand, the president exercises checks and balances on Congress and may veto legislation. The president can also issue executive orders that do not require Congressional approval. Finally, the judiciary can veto Congressional decisions or presidential executive orders if they violate the Constitution.

Presidential Role and Responsibilities

Article II of the US Constitution gives the president powers to execute and enforce laws enacted by Congress. The president also has the power to veto Congressional bills (The Presidency, 2008). Besides, foreign policy falls under the presidential docket, and this includes signing international treaties and agreements.

Evolution of Presidential Power

Beginning late in the 18th Century, during the Founding of the Republic, a strong executive branch emerged. Subsequently, early presidents emerged from the late 18th Century to the 19th Century, when the two-term limit and civilian control over the military emerged. Throughout the 19th Century, presidential power was expanded, giving the president more powers during times of war. The progressive era and emergency of the administrative state saw the emergence of state agencies to help the president govern. The post-World War II era saw the expansion of presidential power during crises. Fast forward to the 21st Century, the modern presidency emerged, and some of major changes were implemented, including more power to make executive orders.


In summary, the doctrines of checks and balances and separation of powers are at the epicenter of the relationship between Congress and the presidency. The president has appointive and veto powers. The president may also issue executive orders that do not require Congressional approval. On the other hand, Congress may impeach a president if they violate the Constitution. Besides, Congress enacts bills that become law and are implemented by the president.


Congress of the United States. (2010). In D. Batten (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of American law (3rd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 94-100). Gale.

Han, L. C., & Han, T. (2012). Representation in Congress. In Handbook to American democracy (Vol. 2, pp. 69-92). Facts on File.

Ketcham, R. (2006). The Presidency: Overview. In P. Finkelman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the new American nation (Vol. 3, pp. 4-12). Charles Scribner’s Sons.

The presidency. (2008). In W. A. Darity, Jr. (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed., Vol. 6, pp. 440-442). Macmillan Reference USA.


We’ll write everything from scratch


The Relationship between Congress and the President

The Relationship between Congress and the President

For this assignment, consider:
The relationship between the U.S. Congress and the president
The changes and challenges in the United States from the time of the Founders’ original vision until the present day
Write a 350- to 525-word essay discussing the function of and relationship between the U.S. Congress and the president.
Explain the U.S. Congress’s structure and makeup.
Describe the differences between the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate.
Describe how bills become laws.
Define the powers granted to the U.S. Congress and the president in the U.S. Constitution.
Explain the checks and balances of power between the U.S. Congress, the president, and the judiciary.
Define the president’s role and responsibilities.
Discuss the evolution of presidential power.
Cite references to support your assignment.

Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.

Order Solution Now