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The Effects of Childhood Development on Adolescent Literacy in Afghanistan

The Effects of Childhood Development on Adolescent Literacy in Afghanistan

First Article

Trani et al. conducted two cross-sectional surveys in 2005 and 2013 in Afghanistan to assess education progress for children and youth with disabilities (2019). The study found no improvement in school access and literacy for children and youths with disabilities. The study further depicts that girls with disabilities were more vulnerable to poor access and literacy levels, especially those living under the guidance of uneducated personnel. According to Trani et al., children living in conflict zones are vulnerable to increased poverty, girls’ early marriages, and mental issues due to stigmatization preventing their access to quality education (2019.

Following this, the authors conducted two household surveys eight years apart using a three-stage clustered randomized sample design. In the first stage, they selected 121 out of 397 districts in Afghanistan. They selected 175 clusters from selected districts. Finally, they interviewed the heads of 30 households from the clusters using random selection (Trani et al., 2019). However, the sample size was too small to represent the Afghanistan population despite the researcher identifying it randomly. Consistently, the authors represent the formation, where one can easily locate particular information. Also, the article uses maps, tables, and charts to increase visual illustration of findings. Notably, no conflict of interest or biases was observed. Nonetheless, there is a research gap on the best strategies to improve learning experiences in conflict areas for children with disabilities.

Conclusively, people with disabilities often face stigmatization and exclusion in their daily engagements. However, children with disabilities in low-income countries are more vulnerable to access to quality education, influencing their literacy levels. The authors have addressed a major problem in society, which calls for transformational strategies to foster inclusion and diversity in education through the enactment of effective policies.

Second Article

Psaki et al. investigate the impact of childbearing on adolescents’ literacy and numeracy in three countries: Malawi, Bangladesh, and Zambia (2019). The study findings were gathered from chosen participants who completed the baseline survey. The authors examined how becoming a mother immediately after leaving school impairs the skills acquired. According to the study, students with low grades and who have had their first child have poor English literacy and numeracy skills. Moreover, apart from losing English literacy and numeracy, adolescent childbirth has long-term consequences.

Furthermore, the study is based on a current research investigation through respondents’ participation in a baseline survey. However, some of the sample size lacks diversity. The sample presentation for Zambia and Bangladesh portrayed gender bias since the respondents were only girls, unlike the sample for Malawi, which comprised girls and boys. Nevertheless, the sample size represented the targeted population well, which can be used to draw effective conclusions. Additionally, the study shows clear presentation consistency, evidenced by how information has been arranged. The authors intensively use visual aids, such as graphs and tables, to represent information. The study identifies a need for further research on the impacts of adolescent childbearing on their academic skills and the effectiveness of interventions to address the negative effects of adolescent childbearing.

In summation, academic skills are essential in promoting a productive generation for the future of a country. Childbearing among the schooling population has been a threat to acquiring effective skills, resulting in low literacy and numeracy levels. The study is instrumental in recommending the effectiveness of improving school quality to promote early academic skills development and address issues related to literacy.


Psaki, S. R., Soler-Hampejsek, E., Saha, J., Mensch, B. S., & Amin, S. (2019). The effects of adolescent childbearing on literacy and numeracy in Bangladesh, Malawi, and Zambia. Demography, 56(5), 1899-1929.

Trani, J. F., Fowler, P., Bakhshi, P., & Kumar, P. (2019). Assessment of progress in education for children and youth with disabilities in Afghanistan: A multilevel analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys. PloS one, 14(6), e0217677.


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As you are reviewing the literature related to your topic, select two of the articles that you found the most “ahas” in.

The Effects of Childhood Development on Adolescent Literacy in Afghanistan

The Effects of Childhood Development on Adolescent Literacy in Afghanistan

You will write a critique of each and submit them to Canvas by September 19th.

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