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The Aspect of Diversity in a Community Group

The Aspect of Diversity in a Community Group

The Aspect of Diversity in a Community Group

NOTECARD 1, Introduction: Your introduction card should introduce your audience to the community group being studied.
The proposed community group for the research is the Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir in Downtown Brooklyn. The choir consists of around 300 singers, including church members with no vocal training. The choir has also embraced diversity by including members from different economic and ethnic backgrounds. The choir ministers during church service and has also recorded thirty albums and has won seven Dove Awards and six Grammar Awards. The choir is devoted to lifting God’s name through singing (Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir, 2021). Their belief in God is founded on acknowledging the existence of the Trinity, which includes the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as one God. The choir embraces diversity by believing that the Holy Spirit indwells all believers and that the baptism of the Spirit is a definite endowment of influence for service and is separate from conversion (Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir, 2021). They rely on the Holy Spirit for comfort and believe that God is the only one with the power to convict humankind.



NOTECARD 2, Research Question: This card will state your research question.
How has Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir accepting untrained singers from diverse backgrounds affected the program and ministry?



NOTECARD 3, Literature Review: Describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2 for the first source in your literature review.
Bouwer Renette. 2009. A Critical Study of Models Implemented by selected South African University Choirs to accommodate Cultural Diversity. Doctoral Dissertation, Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch.

The dissertation discusses three different models used in three selected university choirs to embrace diversity. The models include two choirs with different identities on one campus existing independently alongside one another, one choir embracing diversity, and one choir implementing a Eurocentric character model. The author concludes that music is a cultural form that has the best ability to cross borders and define places because sounds can move across races, social classes, and walls. The article is relevant to my proposed study because it provides information on the different forms of diversity in choirs.


NOTECARD 4, Literature Review: Describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2 for the second source in your literature review.
Christopher Barlow. 2005. Évaluation Électrolaryngographique des effects des cours de chant et du sexe sur la source vocale des chanteurs and chanteuses prépubères.” p.52. Médecine des arts.

The article reviews the impact of formal voice training on the adult singing voice. The study includes listening to the voices of 43 females and 60 males, young trained singers. The study participants were also from a White European background and spoke British English. The author concluded that there are quantifiable differences in the singing voice source of female and male children and that training significantly impacts the voice source. The article is relevant to my current study because it provides information on the difference between trained and untrained singers and how untrained singers are incorporated into choirs to create musical harmony.


NOTECARD 5, Literature Review: Describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2 for the third source in your literature review.
Graham F. Welch, Evangelos Himonides, Jo Saunders, Ioulia Papageorgi, and Marc Sarazin. 2014. Singing and Social Inclusion. p.803. Frontiers in Psychology, 5.

The article discusses the impact of music on social inclusion. The authors conduct the study by involving children with experience in using Sign Up initiatives at the time of assessing their singing and children without any Sign-Up experience at the time of evaluating their singing. The authors conclude that children with more developed singing abilities have a more positive sense of being socially integrated and a sense of self. The article is relevant to my proposed study because it provides information on the role of music in promoting diversity and inclusion of both trained and untrained singers from different backgrounds.


NOTECARD 6, Literature Review: Describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2 for the fourth source in your literature review.
Hildegunn Marie T. Schuff. 2014. Inclusion and Participation in a Multicultural Gospel Choir. FLEKS- Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice. 1(2).

The article discusses the impact of inclusion in a multicultural gospel choir on the well-being of immigrants. The researchers consider a case study approach, including interviews with choir members and participatory observation. They conclude that the choir may promote the social inclusion of immigrants by serving as an entry point to society and as a family during a vulnerable situation. The authors also conclude that during transition and uncertainty, the choir can offer an important ground for cultural participation, which then strengthens immigrants in ways that may transfer to other grounds. This article is relevant to my proposed study because it provides information on the role of diversity in improving the functionality of choirs.


NOTECARD 7, Literature Review: Describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2 for the fifth source in your literature review. Skip this card if you only have four sources.
Kenny Lamm. 2021. Nine Reasons People Aren’t Singing in Worship.

Kenny Lamm is a senior consultant for music and worship for the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina and has served as a worship pastor for 23 years at Front Street Baptist Church in Statesville, N.C.He identifies the nine reasons people fail to sing in worship as not knowing the sings, singing songs that are not appropriate for congregational singing, the congregation failing to hear the people around them singing, singing in too high keys for the average singer, the congregation feeling that they are not expected to sing, creating worship services that are spectator events resulting in a performance environment worship leaders adding too much lib, failing to have a common body of hymnody and worship leaders not connecting with the congregation. This article is relevant to my proposed study because it includes information on how untrained singers can affect a Church program.


NOTECARD 8, Literature Review: Describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2 for the sixth source in your literature review. Skip this card if you only have four sources.
Michael John Bonshor. Confidence and the Choral Singer: The Effects of Choir Configuration, Collaboration, and Communication. p. 28-380. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Sheffield.

The article identifies some of the main influences on the perceptions of choral singers on their performance ability and voices to determine some of the factors affecting their confidence as singers. The author argues that singers find confidence by becoming immersed in the performance and the music, but this can only be achieved with a lot of practice and preparation. The author also concludes that singers may be distracted by insecurities related to physical exits and entries and positioning within the space they are required to perform. The article is relevant to my proposed study because it provides information on barriers and factors that may discourage untrained singers from singing or joining a choir.


NOTECARD 9, Hypothesis: State your hypothesis.
Accepting untrained singers from diverse backgrounds improves program and ministry by allowing individuals to learn from each other’s mistakes and work together to eliminate weaknesses and build on strengths.


NOTECARD 10, Operational definitions: Include and explain any operational definitions you developed for your study. You may skip this card if you have none.
Trained singers- singers who have received training on how to control their pitch and voice to hit low and high pitches smoothly.

Untrained Singers-Singers who have not received any training on how to control their voice and rely on their natural abilities to sing.

Choral singers sing in a choir.

The practice of involving people from different backgrounds.

The state of providing equal opportunities to people from different backgrounds.


NOTECARD 11, Proposed Research Method: Introduce your proposed research method and explain how you propose to conduct your research.
The study will apply a qualitative research method to gather data via self-administered questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaires will include closed and open questions focusing on understanding diversity in the choir, how untrained singers are incorporated into singing in the program and ministry, and how the ministry and program have been affected by including diverse choir members and allowing untrained singers to participate in singing. Data from the questionnaires will then be analyzed using descriptive analysis to address the research question. The interviews will be conducted in two phases. The first phase will include interviewing the choir leaders to get their opinion on how diversity and the inclusion of untrained singers have affected the overall performance of the choir and ministry. The second phase will include interviewing choir members to determine their opinion on whether incorporating untrained singers has a positive or negative impact on the choir. The responses from the two interview phases will then be compared to find similarities and formulate a solid conclusion to test the study’s hypothesis and address the research question.


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This Touchstone provides an opportunity for you to build on the work you developed in Unit 1 by conducting your literature review and developing a hypothesis and proposed research plan. By articulating your research plan, you will be educating others on the problem-solving process you have applied to your topic. You will also strengthen your relationship-building and self and social awareness skills by providing a thorough explanation of a sociological concept.

The Aspect of Diversity in a Community Group

The Aspect of Diversity in a Community Group

Touchstone 3: Presenting a Research Plan
SCENARIO: Your supervisor has approved your research question and plans to study some aspects of diversity and collaboration in a community group. Now, it is time to conduct your literature review and develop your hypothesis and research plan.

ASSIGNMENT: In the first Touchstone, you developed a research question and prepared a preliminary bibliography for your literature review. You will now conduct your literature review, formulate your hypothesis and research plan, and develop a set of notecards that summarize your work.

REQUIREMENTS: You must create 8-11 notecards using the touchstone template below. Your notecards will include:
introduction card
research question card
literature review (4–6 cards)
hypothesis card
operational definitions card (if needed)
research method card
Touchstone 3 Template
Touchstone 3 Sample

When you have finished, submit the Touchstone template. Before you get started, let’s look at how you’ll build your notecards step by step.
A. Directions
Step 1: Revise Touchstone 1
First, return to the community group description, research question, and proposed bibliography that you submitted in Touchstone 1, and make any necessary changes based on feedback from the grader. You will likely want to refine your reading list based on the feedback you received and what you learned about diversity and collaboration in Unit 3.

Step 2: Conduct a Literature Review
Next, complete your reading for your literature review.

Reminder of attributes of good readings for your literature review:

They are academic, scholarly works about research findings, or they are reliable journalistic reporting based on scientifically credible and reliable data.
They should have been published in the last 10 years—unless they are a landmark work on the topic and provide important background or as a comparison.
They look at different sides of the argument and a variety of perspectives.
As you complete each reading, take notes. Questions you should answer about each reading include:

Who wrote this article? Is it the researchers themselves, or is it a journalist writing about their findings?
Where was it published? Is it a scholarly publication like an academic journal, or is it for a popular audience? If the publication is for a popular audience, how would you characterize the audience?
Do they have an academic affiliation? Are the researchers sociologists, or are they of a different discipline?
When was the research conducted?
What question were the researchers attempting to answer?
How does this question/topic relate to my question/topic?
What methods did they use to study their question?
What conclusions did they draw from their results?
How do their conclusions impact my research question, hypothesis, or research plan?
As you did for your first Touchstone, you will include five key elements for each source, with each element separated by a period:

Author’s name(s)
Publication date
Title of the source
Page numbers (if applicable)
Source’s location for web-based texts (URL)
EXAMPLE: Alireza Behtoui. 2015. Beyond social ties: The impact of social capital on labor market outcomes for young Swedish people. p. 711-724.
Step 3: Formulate a Hypothesis, State Your Operational Definitions, and Choose a Research Method
Next, formulate a hypothesis for your research question and choose a sociological research method appropriate for testing your hypothesis. While you won’t be conducting the research, you will write up a description of how you plan to conduct your research. (HINT: Refer back to Lesson 1.3.5: Formulating a Hypothesis, Lesson 1.3.6: Collecting Data: Quantitative Approaches, and Lesson 1.3.6: Collecting Data: Quantitative Approaches for help.)

A formal hypothesis states the relationship between two variables—one is independent (IV), and one is dependent (DV). It must also be formatted as an If/Then statement, for instance:

If people eat chocolate (IV), then they will get pimples (DV).
If people go to the gym (IV), then they will be fit (DV).
Operational Definitions
Operational definitions identify important concepts related to the research. For example, If your community organization includes students, are they K-12? College? Medical? Or are students defined as young adults between the ages of 18-21 who are attending a particular college or university?

Research Method
Deciding on a research method will also take some thought and planning:

Will you use qualitative or quantitative research or a combination?
How will you engage subjects or find your data?
What kinds of tools and assessments will be used to gather the data?
Step 4: Prepare Your Notecards
Finally, incorporate Steps 1-4 to prepare a set of notecards for your proposed research study. Use the template provided to create 8-11 notecards that present the work you completed in Steps 1-4.

Notecard Component

Introduction Your introduction notecard should introduce your audience to the community group being studied.
Research question: Your second notecard will state your research question.
Literature Review (4-6 cards) Now that you’ve introduced your community group and research question, it’s time to add information to your literature review notecards. Each source should have one notecard. The notecard should describe the information and analysis you performed in Step 2.
Hypothesis Your hypothesis notecard should describe your hypothesis.
Operational definitions: Your operational definitions notecard should include and explain any operational definitions you developed for your study. You may skip this card if you have none.
Research method: Your research method notecard should introduce your proposed research method and explain how you propose to conduct your research.

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