Define terrorism for your audience.
Commonly, terrorism has been understood as violent acts targeting civilians in pursuit of ideological or political endeavors (Jongman, 2017). In statutory terms, even though the international community has not yet adopted a comprehensive terrorism definition, resolutions, declarations, and universal treaties that relate to particular aspects have defined various core elements and acts. In the year 1994, the Declaration of the General Assembly on measures for eliminating international terrorism stated that terrorism refers to “acts of criminality calculated or intended to provoke a terror state in the public, particular persons or a group of people for political purposes” (Jongman, 2017). Mostly, such acts in any circumstances are not justifiable, despite philosophical, political, racial, ideological, religious, or ethnic considerations that might have been invoked to justify them. A decade later, the 2004 resolution of the Security Council referred to terrorism as “Criminal acts against civilians that are committed with the intention of causing serious bodily injury or death, or even hostage-taking, with the main aim of provoking a terror state in a group of people or the general public in order to intimidate the population or compel an international organization or a Government to perform or not to perform any act.”
Explain whether the frequency of terrorism has increased over the last several years, or if this is a perception based on media reports. Support your findings with examples.
Across the globe, terrorism has been in retreat. In the year 2014, attacks decreased from around seventeen thousand to about eleven thousand, and it has dropped by approximately forty percent in the Middle East, but that is not the case in the United States (Mirza, 2014). The latter is seeing a heave in terrorism. About ten years ago, the United States encountered only six attacks, but in 2017, the number increased to sixty-five. There is also an increase in the number of fatalities. The majority of the attacks in the same year were predicted to be provoked by right-leaning perceptions. According to the Global Terrorism Database, out of the sixty-five attacks, thirty-seven were linked to anti-Muslim, racist, fascist, anti-Semitic, xenophobic, or anti-government motivations. However, the threat of terrorism is smaller in the U.S. compared to other countries in the West (Mirza, 2014). Except for the huge Oklahoma City and 9/11 attacks, there is no year when terrorist attacks claimed the lives of over fifty people in the U.S. Two years ago; the Global Terrorism Database revealed that the number was forty-four. The majority of terrorist attacks across the globe mostly take place in countries that experience civil unrest. Over seventy-five percent of all terrorist attacks over the last decade occurred in the following six countries: Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria, Yemen, and Syria.
Determine if illegal immigration through our southern borders creates a threat for increased terrorism in the United States, and explain why.
Illegal immigrants have been regularly blamed for the increase of crime in multiple societies, and after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., illegal immigration is increasingly connected to international terrorism in the policy community, the press, as well as the public imagination (Ackleson, 2005). The association of illegal immigration to terrorism and crime, in general, is mostly overblown for political aims. Terrorists tend to travel internationally to run their organizations and carry out missions that are often the system of transportation and international travel conveyance. Also, tend to cross the southern border within the flows of illegal immigrants and are able to hide within the immigrant communities (Ackleson, 2005). Since 9/11, the population of America has become fearful of the terrorist attack threats against the homeland. The fear was attributed to the threat by border discourse and the danger of illegal immigration on the nation’s security.
Explain whether or not ISIS is a more significant threat for the United States than Al Qaeda or Hezbollah
Al Qaeda, alongside its affiliates, has remained a threat to the United States homeland, while the danger of ISIS is more in the interest of the United States and Middle East stability (Gunter, 2015). Both of these groups have tried to spread their model and, in Al Qaeda’s case, to ascertain its operation’s relevance. At this point, the focus of ISIS is majorly on Syria and Iraq. In Europe and the U.S., it might inspire “lone wolves,” but it does not direct its resources into attacking those areas, and services of security are prepared for its threat. Al Qaeda happens to be weaker and less dynamic compared to ISIS, and the latter is more fixated on attacking the U.S. and its Western allies (Gunter, 2015). However, the Islamic State is more brutal compared to Al Qaeda. It has used brutality and extreme violence to attract more followers and attention; according to experts, this strategy is working in its favor. The Islamic State has attained international attention by beheading enemies and prisoners and later posting photos of violence on social network sites, and in contrast, that practice has been shunned by Al Qaeda due to the risks of turning off Sunnis as well as other Muslims from sympathizing with them.
Assess whether local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies are prepared to prevent future terrorist attacks in the United States
After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the Department of Homeland Security of the United States was established. It aimed to unify the federal capabilities and to protect the nation from any terrorist attacks in the future (Pelfrey Jr, 2007). Within this department, the Office of State and Local Governments Cooperation and Preparedness (SLGCP) has been charged with the coordination of first-responder efforts of preparedness against terrorism in areas such as exercises, training, and equipment support. Further, SLGCP is responsible for directing grant programs of terrorism preparedness at the federal level for every provider of emergency response and for measuring improvements and pragmatic performances in domestic preparation (Pelfrey Jr, 2007). Responding to the 9/11 attacks, local and state law enforcement agencies undertook various steps to prevent future terrorist attacks. They increased the number of personnel responsible for engaging in emergency response planning, updated response plans for biological, chemical, and radiological attacks, and to some extent, mutual aid agreements and increased the spending of the department or reallocation of internal resources to concentrate on terrorism preparedness (Pelfrey Jr, 2007). The September 11th attacks also catalyzed the increased assessment operations, particularly at the local level. For instance, before the 9/11 attacks, only twenty-five percent of the local agencies in the small counties did a risk assessment, and after those attacks, approximately seventy-five percent had done so. But according to the results of various surveys, there are variations by county size in law enforcement’s approach to preparedness. For instance, the local agencies in the larger counties were more engaged proactively in training and planning activities compared to the local agencies in the smaller counties.
Recommend improvements in counterterrorism efforts. Base your answer on the need for additional resources and equipment
The United States can work to combat terrorism in various ways. For instance, it may monitor potential terrorists by promptly identifying people that might be radicalized and providing buildings and people who are at risk with more security (Nacos, 2016). The government of the United States should take security measures to protect organizations and people that are potential attack targets, and this will mitigate the chances of terrorist attacks, and if an attack occurs, the United States should be prepared to minimize the effects.
Terrorists tend to go through the process of radicalization prior to becoming violent. Youth workers and teachers should recognize this and should report any suspicions to law enforcement agencies; in turn, it will be possible to curb radicalization beforehand and prevent it from leading to terrorism (Nacos, 2016).
Offenses of terrorism are crimes that are carried out with the intention of causing terror. The intent of terrorism happens to be a circumstance making the punishment more severe (Nacos, 2016). In that case, the punishment for any kind of offense carried out with the intent of terrorism should be harsher than the primary offense on its own. This should apply to individuals who conduct the actual attacks and those with the intention of carrying out an attack. For instance, completing a program of terrorist training or planning an attack should be considered a criminal offense.
The United States government should work with international partners so that they can share information related to terrorism
The United States of America should improve information sharing and international cooperation so that terrorism can be combated. The U.S. should also spare some funds to establish a unit of passenger information (Nacos, 2016). This unit will analyze all the information that the airlines provide, such as data on the reservation, and should work in collaboration with similar units in various countries. The information gathered can be used in combating terrorism and other serious crimes.
General counterterrorism measures
The following are general counterterrorism measures that the U.S should consider in combating terrorism (Nacos, 2016):
- The government should remove any website that calls for violence, uses hate speech, or advocates for discrimination.
- A counterterrorism alert system should be designed to warn the government and the critical sectors about any terrorist threats.
- The American Air Force should monitor the airspace around the clock.
- Special units from the police and the armed forces should collaborate in special intervention services to detain or arrest suspects of terrorist offenses. In extreme cases, they should be eliminated.
- Law enforcement agencies should monitor individuals who pose a terrorist threat.
- The government should take measures to hinder terrorist financing.
- The intelligence and security services should also increase their capabilities.
- A national list of terrorism should be created in order to keep records of organizations and individuals involved in activities related to terrorism. Their assets should be frozen indefinitely.
Jongman, A. J. (2017). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, databases, theories, and literature. Routledge.
Mirza, D., & Verdier, T. (2014). Are lives a substitute for livelihoods? Terrorism, security, and U.S. bilateral imports. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58(6), 943-975.
Ackleson, J. (2005). Constructing security on the U.S.–Mexico border. Political Geography, 24(2), 165-184.
Gunter, M. M. (2015). Iraq, Syria, ISIS, and the Kurds: Geostrategic concerns for the U.S. and Turkey. Middle East Policy, 22(1), 102-111.
Nacos, B. L. (2016). Terrorism and counterterrorism. Routledge.
Pelfrey Jr, W. V. (2007). Local law enforcement terrorism prevention efforts: A state-level case study. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(3), 313-321.
ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE
We’ll write everything from scratch
Week 3 – Assignment: Interpret Terrorism in North America and Action Taken by the United States
Instructions: See below under Principal instructions
Assume you are the police chief of a small town in central Florida. Orlando is just 50 miles away, providing many tourist attractions such as Disney World, Universal Studios, and Sea World, which bring millions of visitors to the region each year. The location of these attractions presents a possible target for terrorists.
Based on the rising threat of terrorism from ISIS and other terrorist groups, you re-evaluated your readiness for a possible terrorist attack. Your evaluation resulted in the need for additional equipment to ensure safety for your citizens; however, budget cuts do not allow additional spending for updated communication devices. You decide to address the city council to request assistance.
Prepare a PowerPoint presentation for the city council meeting that addresses the following:
- Define terrorism for your audience.
- Explain whether the frequency of terrorism has increased over the last several years, or if this is a perception based on media reports. Support your findings with examples.
- Determine if illegal immigration through our southern borders creates a threat for increased terrorism in the United States, and explain why.
- Explain whether or not ISIS is a greater threat for the United Stated than Al Qaeda or Hezbollah.
- Assess whether local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies are prepared to prevent future terrorist attacks in the United States.
- Recommend improvements in counterterrorism efforts. Base your answer on the need for additional resources and equipment.
In your analysis, assess the relationships among law enforcement agencies. Evaluate the use of weapons of mass destruction, and then analyze the actions of public safety and health agencies.
Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and graphics as well as speaker notes for each slide. The speaker notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists.
Support your presentation with at least three scholarly or professional resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources may be included.
Length: 12-15 slides (with a separate reference slide)
Notes Length: 100-150 words for each slide
- Write about 150 words per slide (total slides 12), does not need to be double space, total number of words 1,800
- Having that in mind, keep the following format:
- Slide #1: then, about 150 words including title.
- Slide #2: then, about 150 words including title.
- Slide #3: then, about 150 words including title, until you complete 12 slides.
- WRITE IT IN WORD, do not use PowerPoint. I will transfer it and compile the graphics.
- Use as many slides you need to make a point. Example: (Define terrorism – 1, Define terrorism – 2), etc.
This is an example:
Slide # 1: Define terrorism -1:
Write about 150 words.
Slide # 2: Define terrorism -2:
Write about 150 words.
Slide # 3: Define terrorism -3:
Write about 150 words.
Keep this format until you complete about 12 slides.
1,800 words is about 4 pages.
Have a similar assignment? "Place an order for your assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you A results."