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Structure And Function Of Dendrites Cell Body Nucleus Axon Myelin Sheath

Structure And Function Of Dendrites Cell Body Nucleus Axon Myelin Sheath

Terminal Buttons Of The Neuron.

Dendrites are the growing branches of a neuron that are used by other neurons outside the cell to send messages to the neuron, while the cell body, also called Soma, is the center of a neuron. It is made up of the important cells and parts that help the neuron work. Consistently, genetic information is stored in the cell’s nucleus. It is a very important part of how the neuron grows and develops. On the other hand, the axon is the part of the neuron that sends electrical signals from the Soma to the axon endings in other neurons. To follow this, the myelin sheath is a thick, insulation-like material made by glial cells and wraps around the axon. This sheath is important for neurons to be able to talk to each other. Lastly, terminal buttons are at the end of the axon, and they have synaptic vesicles that hold neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that send signals from one cell to another.

The Process Of How Neurons Communicate With One Another

Neurons communicate with each other through an electrical process. The action potential moves down the length of the axon because of an electrical event called a membrane potential, which is caused by ions moving across the membrane. When a neuron gets a signal, gates on its membrane open, letting many sodium ions in, starting the action potential. This electrical signal moves down the axon, with the impulses bouncing back and forth between the Nodes of Ranvier until they reach the end buttons. When synaptic vesicles reach terminal buttons, they release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters move across the cleft and link to receptors on the dendrite of the next cell. (Spielman et al., 2020) The same thing happens in the next cell when neurotransmitters connect to their matching receptors. Once the signal is sent, extra chemicals are removed from the synapse to ensure a clear “on” or “off” between messages.


Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e.


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Chapter 3 Written Assignment (200-word mini- mum) A
Start Assignment
Due Sunday by 11:59 pm
Points 20
Submitting a text entry box or a file upload Available Jun 12 at 12 am – Jun 18 at 11:59 pm
For this assignment you can choose one of two options.
Option 1 Section 3.2 in the text and Lecture Notes
1) Describe the structure and function of each of the components (Dendrites, Cell Body, Nucleus, Axon, Myelin Sheath, Terminal Buttons) of the neuron.
2) Describe the process of how neurons communicate with one another.
Option 2 Section 3.3 in the text and Lecture Notes
1) Describe the difference between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
2) Explain the difference between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
3) Differentiate between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
Note: You must fully answer each question asked in
your own words. You must use textbook
information to support your response and cite appropriately.

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