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Sports Science-Exercise Therapy

Sports Science-Exercise Therapy

Gross motor skills define abilities that enable the execution of activities that require large muscles. The muscles required for gross motor skills include the core muscles of the belly and the back, muscles of the arms, and those of the legs. Activity range that requires gross motor skills is sitting, walking, standing, jumping, kicking, and running. Other complex activities requiring gross motor skills are swimming, horse and bike riding, skating, and playing soccer, football, or basketball (Gonzalez et al.). These activities define daily functionalities and reinforce the significance of these skills.

Conversely, fine motor skills utilize small muscles. These skills are required to make body movements using small muscles of the hands and the wrist. These skills are complex, and their execution requires a coordinated effort between the brain and the muscles. The activity range of the fine motor skills includes holding a pencil, using rulers and scissors, typing on a keyboard, writing, and drawing, among others (Gonzalez et al.). Fine motor skills as well define routine functionalities such as grooming.

Despite their differences in the muscles utilized for movements, these skills remain useful in routine human activities. Muscles used for fine movements are built on the larger muscles used for gross motor skills, and their effectiveness is thus dependent on the functionalities of these muscles. These skills are special components of children’s growth and development. Exploiting the functionalities of these muscles during their growth enhances these skills. Challenging a child with activities such as walking or crawling enhances the development of gross motor skills (Herman and Herman). Consequently, appropriate development of gross motor skills in children may help them build on their fine motor skills.

Gross motor skills utilize large muscles. The development of these skills begins in infancy and continues throughout the childhood developmental stage. Babies are usually subjected to gross motor skills challenges when there is evidence of delay in their developmental stages. These challenges can also be done during the normal developmental process to facilitate their development. Activities such as assisted walking considerably enhance gross motor skills in babies. Other complex gross motor skills can also be appropriate in children who have developed all the basic gross motor skills. Children can be taught activities such as skating, riding a bicycle, and playing games to enhance the development of their gross motor skills.

Fine motor skills use the smaller muscles of the wrist and the hand. These skills are appropriate for children who have developed basic gross motor skills such as walking and lifting. Notably, this is because these smaller muscles are built on the larger ones and therefore require them to function. Fine motor activities are necessary for all children old enough to execute self-care activities such as grooming, bathing, plugging in a socket, and dialing a phone. This is because of the necessity of these activities in their lives at this stage.

Static exercises are strength training that targets building muscle mass. These exercises involve the contraction of specific muscles or muscle groups while keeping the length of the muscles constant. These exercises include shoulder stretch, calf stretch, hamstring stretch, upper back stretch, hip stretch, and thigh stretch. These exercises find utility in rehabilitation centers. Patients with arthritis who have a limited range of motion due to their disease can immensely benefit from these exercises.

Dynamic exercises, on the other hand, involve muscle movements. These exercises allow the movement of muscles to a specific range of motion. They are targeted at strengthening and building the mass of the muscles. Examples of dynamic exercises include climbing stairs, performing squats, and doing pushups. Their effects on the range of motion are directly proportional to their execution frequency. These exercises are appropriate for persons without restriction in their range of motion.

A balance progression program using static and dynamic exercises is a special component of rehabilitation programs that aims to strengthen balance control, enhance physical activity and improve the quality of life of these individuals. This program utilizes dynamic and static exercises to execute these objectives. This program is mainly designed for the older populations, amputees, persons with neuromuscular conditions, and persons undergoing cancer rehabilitation. Patients with back pain and those suffering from obesity and overweight also benefit from these programs.

Initial assessment of all patients is necessary. This initial assessment will give information on individual patient characteristics, physical and functional disabilities, and other information on their health. Assessment enables the tailoring of these programs to the specific needs of the individuals. The duration of these exercises will differ depending on the specific patient’s needs and characteristics. For older adults, two to three therapy sessions will be done weekly for eight weeks. However, this may differ in the presence of comorbidities that affect their range of motion (Halvarsson et al.). Persons with obesity and overweight may require more weekly sessions and an extended duration to attain optimal results.

Furthermore, the exercises should be introduced gradually to allow time for muscular adjustments and ensure the patients’ safety. The gradual introduction also allows clients to become familiar with the exercises and the equipment used. The exercise should incorporate both static and dynamic exercises. These exercises should be alternated to ensure optimal results. Dynamic exercises should be avoided in clients with a limited range of motion, such as those suffering from arthritic disorders (Halvarsson et al.). Accordingly, the outcomes of the exercise will be evaluated after eight weeks for older adults.

Works Cited

Gonzalez, Sandy L. et al. “Do Gross and Fine Motor Skills Differentially Contribute To Language Outcomes? A Systematic Review”. Frontiers in Psychology, vol 10, 2019. Frontiers Media SA, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02670. Accessed 19 May 2022.

Halvarsson, Alexandra et al. “Taking Balance Training For Older Adults One Step Further: The Rationale For And A Description Of A Proven Balance Training Programme”. Clinical Rehabilitation, vol 29, no. 5, 2018. SAGE Publications, https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215514546770. Accessed 19 May 2022.

Herman, Eunice. “What Is The Difference Between Gross Motor And Fine Motor Skills? — EJ Therapy”. EJ Therapy, 2022, https://www.ejtherapy.com/blog/fine-motor-and-gross-motor-skills.

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Question 


Describe the differences between “gross motor skills” and “fine motor skills.” Explain when it is appropriate to participate in each.
Design a balance progression program using static and dynamic exercises.

Exercise Therapy

Exercise Therapy

Exercise Therapy Edition 3
Knopf, Karl Chapters 17-19

American Stroke Association – This site offers support and information for stroke patients, caregivers, and their families. For more information on how to improve fine motor skills, please read the following article:
Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills (Links to an external site.)

How to Take a Pulse
When working with clients it is important to know how to properly take someone’s pulse. Please click on the link below to review the proper technique.
http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/taking-a-pulse-heart-rate (Links to an external site.)

Developing a fundamental movement pattern –
http://www.sportnz.org.nz/assets/Uploads/attachments/managing-sport/young-people/fundamental-movement-balance.pdf (Links to an external site.)

Article on kinesthetic learning strategies – plus links to additional articles on kinesthetic learning and awareness
http://www.kinestheticlearningstrategies.com/ (Links to an external site.)

Exercises to develop balance (athlete specific) with video –
http://www.stack.com/a/best-balance-exercises (Links to an external site.)

Directory of exercises based on anatomy –
http://www.exrx.net/Lists/Directory.html (Links to an external site.)

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