Researched Proposal Rough Draft
Social stratification is a system that ranks society by placing individuals into hierarchically superposed classes. It is divided into three parts: upper class, middle class, and lower class, on the grounds of power and wealth. Stratification helps people understand how society is categorized and how it works. Social stratification motivates all present positions, especially those with the top statuses and rewards. By distributing resources unevenly, society pushes people to work harder and better to earn a higher social status. In addition, social stratification may cause many problems within a society. Social stratification brings on emotional stress and depression for families in the lower social classes because they have different privileges, such as access to wealth, power, and prestige. In this research paper, I will discuss the social stratifications of gender, social class, and race to examine their results in the education institution.
Gender is an important element of social stratification as it controls the opportunities we are presented, such as the social ranking that men usually have higher statuses than women.
Gender stereotyping is present in societies as their sex and societal role stereotypes genders. A traditional family often comprises a man, a woman, and their biological or adopted children. The woman’s duties often include maintaining the home and raising the children. The man’s duties are to work to support the family financially. Gender stereotyping of gender roles negatively impacts education as it shapes one’s perception and attitude. In some countries, women are instructed to stay at home and not attend school; they are not given the resources to earn a higher education career. “More than 700 million women worldwide are married off each year before they reach their 18th birthday while one in every three women experience physical violence by their intimate partners. Women are also paid significantly lower wages than men. They also account for almost two-thirds of the 775 million illiterate population today. A contributing factor to the lack of improvement in women’s socioeconomic status is the persistent male-female gap in educational opportunities as well as in social and gender norms, which interfere with the ability of girls and women to take advantage of the opportunities in many developing countries (Islam & Asadullah, 2018)”. This stereotype produces conflict in the educational institution within society. Race is also a dominant factor in social stratification. Race is an important issue related to social groups’ challenges in educational institutions, creating education gaps. As most people in society analyze, the black race belongs to the low class. More African American males are put into special education classrooms than any other race and gender combination. African American males seem prevalent in special education classrooms due to cultural differences, academic misidentifications, fluidity of labeling, and the lack of drive or cultural knowledge from school faculty members such as school psychologists, counselors, administrators, and teachers (Moore et al., 2008). Many years ago, slavery existed, and African Americans were enslaved people for whites, so many whites were placed in a higher class. Social class contributes to child development and academic outcomes. There is an achievement gap between upper-class and lower-class students. Children from higher social classes have the resources to attend more advanced schools (private schools) and earn a better education than a lower-class child, who is limited to public education. Those from higher social classes are more likely to be successful and earn a college degree. Several changes can be made to ensure equality within the educational institution. Challenging negative attitudes can be a start to promoting equality. At a young age, children learn certain behaviors such as discrimination, stereotyping, and racism. Children often learn these behaviors from open discussions or simply from the actions of their parents. There should be a clear set of rules that are present to illustrate how to treat people. Every child in America is appointed to the right to a free public education. The Constitution requires that all children have the right to an equal educational opportunity, despite their race, ethnic background, religion, sex, social class, or if their a citizen or non-citizen. Yet all the factors listed often explain why parents send their children to private schools.
I have found many interesting facts after studying the lower class closely and its relation to the educational institution. I have found that lower-class children are less likely to attend college. Children from a low class are subject to a higher chance of dropping out, teen pregnancy, and participating in criminal activities.” In 2009, poor (bottom 20 percent of all family incomes) students were five times more likely to drop out of high school than high-income (top 20 percent of all family incomes) students (Rumberger,2013).” Poverty, such as family and community poverty, are relevant factors that separate a child from earning a higher education. Family poverty is connected to several disadvantages; homelessness; hunger and food insecurity; parents in jail or absent; or domestic violence issues in the home. Sometimes, it could be a generational curse; parents are uneducated, so they don’t initiate the importance of earning an education. Community poverty matters as neighborhoods, especially those with many African Americans, face disadvantages, including high unemployment rates, neglect, poor health, drug addictions, poverty, welfare dependency, and crimes. It is noticed that family poverty is associated with many dropouts; schools and communities can also increase the dropout rate. Two main strategies can be used to improve the dropout rate. One is to incite intervention programs to improve the individuals’ academic achievements, attitudes, and behaviors. The second strategy would be to help families improve the settings themselves. Political and public support will be needed to reduce the massive gap in family income, access to health care, school funding, student numbers, and additional community resources. Method
I am using a qualitative study by Nancy Rice called “Critical Pedagogy and African American Males Labeled “Emotionally or Behaviorally Disordered“. In Rice’s study she focuses on use of critical pedagogy with African American males that has labels of “emotional or behavioral disorders. Rice discusses the need for critical pedagogy as it “seeks to uncover taken- for granted assumptions and analyze the power relations embedded in curricular choices and other schooling practices, such as special education referral, assessment, identification, and placement procedures” (Rice, 2009, p. 65). To initiate this study, teachers worked closely with students to study how their ranking as special education students affected their identities. The teachers worked with the students as regular students and provided opportunities. Rice chose to work with an urban high school and placed students with mild disabilities in a regular classroom setting with a special education teacher present to assist. After hours of observations, interviews, and meetings with the regular and special education classroom teachers, Rice found a remarkable fact; the teachers that were chosen for this study pointed out that their students didn’t quite understand their special education title or diagnosis and that the high school had the chance to be dishonest and should be questioned if needed. These teachers were open with their students yet still encouraged them to work to do their best. These teachers taught their students to inquire and be knowledgeable of their school and curriculum. Rice observed that the students became more engaged and fully understood their academic progress when they learned about cultural pedagogy. Rice concluded that “a pedagogy that focuses on the development of positive identities, social justice, developing relationships, fostering autonomy, and social change would benefit teacher education in special education as well as teachers and students in K-12 environments” (Rice, 2006, p. 74- 75)
Social stratification is how a society is categorized; based on factors such as wealth, race, power, income, and education. There are various reasons why some groups succeed in the future and why others don’t. One of the most important reasons is the impact of the government and how certain groups cannot improve their socioeconomic status or social class. Education classifies an individual’s social class as a person in the upper class is more beneficial to society. Education improves society as if a population has a high level of education, they don’t depend on government assistance programs, the unemployment level is low, and the tax revenue is greater. Education is relevant as it reduces the crime rate and improves public health. This research is important as it states that African American males are more likely to fall under academic misidentification than any other race or gender.
Additionally, research states that as students age, the chance of academic misidentification increases, especially among African American males. Judgmental disabilities are learning disadvantages, an individual having an intellectual disability or being emotionally/behaviorally disturbed.
This misidentification affects individuals and their classmates as it demonstrates that African American males who are equal to them are sometimes misjudged and undervalued. Minority students are likelier to be placed in the “judgmental” disability categories. Education is a major role that supports the stratification system as it justifies the uneven distribution of wealth. Education contributes to educational attainment in the United States. School institutions reflect and can sometimes be the reason for stratification compared to other social institutions. The schools that students choose to attend can impact whether an individual becomes successful in the future. Several policies need to be in place to improve the educational institution and issues that must be addressed. For instance, African American males are misunderstood, and teachers and administrators are not knowledgeable about black boys and how they interact with the world. This causes a low tolerance for disciplinary and corrective practices, contributing to higher-than-average numbers of African American males placed in special education classrooms. Changes can start with understanding access deficits and not misunderstanding them as cognitive deficits. First, the staff needs to be educated; the staff should talk about how black male students are approached and the changes needed to ensure equality. Secondly, students who need support need to be identified. Students can be identified by looking at the percentage of black males and negotiating the change in criteria. Lastly, the educational institution must evaluate what works best, such as evaluating and setting interventions that help the individual. “Black males in grade 3 to 8 are often incorrectly assigned to special education, but other supports could better help them succeed in school (McNair, 2021)”. There are way too many African American males that are placed in special education classrooms. By recognizing this issue and making the necessary changes, the decisions will impact African American males for the rest of their lives.
In conclusion, it is essential to understand that several factors, such as gender, race, and social class, determine stratification in the educational institution. Education can determine an individual’s social class and whether they are placed in the lower or upper class. If an individual is in the upper class, society will benefit more from the person as one is not dependent on public assistance. As discussed in this paper, different studies and gaps exist within the educational institution. I have presented that minorities are less likely to earn a higher education. In society, an individual is placed in a social class according to their education wh, ich is unfortunate. For example, if a person is born into an upper class, parents have the resources to ensure the child has the best education. The child will likely become successful and obtain a high position, such as a doctor or lawyer. More the less, other factors such as race and gender have a positive or negative effect on the individual’s future. Poverty is the main reason for high school dropout rates. Family poverty and community poverty are both relevant to the high rates. Family poverty can cause children to have a higher rate of health issues, teen pregnancy, mental health issues, or conducting in criminal activity. Community poverty increases the chances of an individual dropping out of school to earn money to help support their parents. The qualitative study “Critical Pedagogy and African American Males Labeled “Emotionally or Behaviorally Disordered” by Nancy Rice has proved that my research can be applied to the education institution as African American males have a high chance of being placed in special education. This research is important as it shows how social stratification is present in the educational institution and how it contributes to stratification in social class. Several policies and changes should be in place to improve African American males’ circumstances. Education systems must start with educating staff on how to work with African American males. African American males are often misunderstood and misdiagnosed with disabilities. Overall, African American students are more likely to be suspended than whites. Racial disproportionality in discipline is the overrepresentation of children of color who may be subject to discipline, suspension, and expulsion compared to the overall population of children in the entire school. Racial disparity in school discipline is both a cause and effect of racial inequality in American schools. It is important because it means that African American children, mainly African American males, are likelier to end up with an unpromised future. When African American students receive less schooling, they often have higher chances with the criminal justice system, and, in the future, they have little to no luck finding a job due to their background. The school-to-prison pipeline is the relative likelihood that minors and young adults from underprivileged backgrounds will become incarcerated due to the increasingly harsh school rules and the educational inequality present in the United States school systems. Unfortunately, the education institution is affected by gender, race, and social class. After conducting research, statistics prove that this theory is indeed true, which causes fewer educational resources for African American males in special education classrooms.
Cloonan, Emily J., “The Overrepresentation of African American Males in Special Education Classroom: Advantages of Single Sex Education” (2016). Education Masters. Paper 333.
Islam, K. M. M., & Asadullah, M. N. (2018, January 19). Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks. PloS one. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5774688/
McNair, J. (2021, August 25). How to avoid overidentifying black male students for special education. Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/how-avoid- overidentifying-black-male-students-special-education
Rice, Nancy. (2006) Critical Pedagogy and African American Males Labeled “Emotionally or Behaviorally Disordered. Multiple Voices for Ethically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 9(1), 64- 76
Rumberger, R. (2013, May). Poverty and high school dropouts. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/indicator/2013/05/poverty-dropouts
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Assignment: Researched Proposal Rough Draft
The rough draft of your proposal is due in Unit 4, while the final draft is due in Unit 5.
For the researched proposal, you will identify a problem or issue in your present or past workplace or community. The assignment objective, as provided in Unit 4, is to propose a solution to the problem or issue and to present that solution to a decision-maker or group of decision-makers who can implement the recommendation. You will support your proposal with research.
You will develop a concrete, practical solution to the problem that can be implemented. Reference sources that explain the problem, issue and support the solution will be included.
The proposal must be 2,500 to 3,000 words using APA format for your citations and references. The proposal itself should be single-spaced with double spacing between paragraphs. The word count includes all components. The purpose of establishing a word count is to ensure the topic chosen is neither too big nor too small. Also, writing within parameters is a common requirement in business communications.
The rough draft of your proposal is due in Unit 4.
The objective of the research proposal is to participate in developing a detailed proposal as used in any organizational setting. Access the quick summarized preview of Unit 5 final researched proposal checklist below so you can begin to address these items in your rough draft of the proposal due in this unit.
You will upload your rough draft in two places:
1) The Unit 4 Discussion peer review.
2) The Unit 4 Assignment Dropbox.
Your instructor will review your rough draft and provide you with feedback to guide your writing of the final draft. Your team of peers will provide you with feedback on your draft in the Discussion.
- Contains no fewer than 2,500 words; no more than 3,000.
- Includes a minimum of one original graphic.
- Identifies the audience and purpose.
- Shows research has been conducted, and preliminary integration of research material is in place following current APA formatted in-text citations.
- No fewer than five references are cited, at least one of which is a peer-reviewed article.
- Adheres to business document expectations — single space, double space between paragraphs. Provides a cover letter or memo, a cover page, a table of contents, an executive summary, and references. See source formatting specification in the APA manual for in-text references and reference pages.
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