Based on the given hypothesis, the study variables are participating in the school programs emphasizing critical thinking skills, participating in the school program emphasizing role memorization, and high academic achievement and self-esteem scores. Also, from the hypothesis, it is evident that there are two independent variables: participation in after-school programs emphasizing critical thinking skills and involvement in school programs that stress role memorizing. On the other hand, the dependent variable is high academic achievement and self-esteem scores. The proper names to give the variables are participation in critical thinking, role memorization, and high scores for independent and dependent variables.
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The independent variables are categorical since one may opt to participate in the school program, making it flat since the variable depends on the children’s choice. On the contrary, the dependent variable is a continuous variable since every kid will have a score irrespective of whether they participate in the school program. Each variable varies differently from one to the other due to its type. For example, since it is an independent variable, the variable participation in school programs that stresses role memorizing varies differently from the variable, high scores in academic achievements and self-esteem. In contrast, the high score is a dependent variable. Moreover, the independent variable is categorical while the dependent variable is continuous hence the variation.
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An educational researcher is interested in the relationship between students’ participation in two after-school programs and academic achievement. She states the following hypothesis in the description of her study:
Children who participate in an after-school program emphasizing critical thinking skills will score higher on measures of academic achievement and self-esteem than those who participate in a rote memorization program.
What are the variables in this study? What would be good names for the variables? Identify the independent variable(s) and dependent variable(s). Describe how each variable varies (i.e., whether the variable is categorical or continuous). Justify why each variable goes the way you describe.