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Reflecting on Professional Practices and Their Impact on Student Learning

Reflecting on Professional Practices and Their Impact on Student Learning

Instructional Decision-Making

5.1. Instructional Modifications Based on the Needs of Students

The teacher candidate modified the teaching strategies outlined in the lesson plan. Initially, the teacher opted to work with all students simultaneously in the letter and sound identification activities. However, the teacher encouraged teamwork by encouraging the students to pair in groups of twos, which allowed the students to exchange ideas on the knowledge acquired on the lesson concept. Group activities fostered a friendly learning atmosphere where students freely interacted with their peers, boosting their determination on the learning objectives. Also, the teacher incorporated multisensory teaching strategies to support an inclusive learning environment where the students’ preferences were addressed by employing multiple senses, including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic, for students to utilize the sense that meets their learning needs (Ngong, 2019).

Only one of the students was vibrant in responding to the questions asked, which prompted the need for group engagement to boost students’ confidence in sharing their ideas on the learning concept. Two of the students were stubborn. They hardly remained in the same position for a minute. Another student paid keen attention to visual tools, such as letter charts with pictures. The student’s behavior prompted the need for multisensory learning strategies to address the student’s learning preferences. Following the formative assessment results, one of the stubborn students acquired a high score, illustrating the effectiveness of the modification incorporated in the lesson. Students’ participation had improved from the third assessment day. The students also effectively identified letters associated with altered sounds from the wall charts.

5.2. Instructional Differentiation/Modification Based on Formative Assessments

Formative assessment data was collected daily for five days. The teacher evaluated the skills acquired by each student, and their performance was graded. The assessment scores informed the teacher of the effectiveness of the modifications incorporated into the learning process. The student’s performance also instructed the teacher on the need to amend changes to their teaching strategies to meet the needs of each student. After the teacher supported group activities, one student’s performance improved but remained dormant for subsequent days, prompting the teacher to incorporate multisensory practices to evaluate their effectiveness on students’ performance (Ngong, 2019). The teacher added visual tools and cues, including colored letter charts that captured students’ attentiveness to the learning concepts. The teacher also provided simplified and repeated directions on integrating the learning concepts. Further, positive feedback to the students informed them of their weak areas, increasing their focus on improving their skills.

Analysis of Student Learning

Data Analysis – Student Assessment Data

The class mastery degree for the letter identification and sound articulation objective attained was 50%. Two of the students had acquired a 100% mastery degree from the assessment score, while the degree of mastery for two of the students remained at 0%. Based on the student’s knowledge gained, half of the class acquired mastery skills in letter recognition and appropriate letter-sound articulation. Half of the class had proficient skills on the learning objectives, while the other part of the class still encountered challenges in letter-sound association. The student’s mastery scores illustrate an average achievement of the learning objectives. The learning goal aimed to ensure that every student acquired a 100% mastery degree on the learning objective, but only half the class was in the position to accomplish that goal. From the pre-assessment data, the mastery degree of the students was 30%, 100%, 0%, and 0%. While the post-assessment data indicates that the student with a 30% score had attained 100%, the average mastery score of the whole class was 50%.

The age range of the students is 4 to 5 years. The letter-sound recognition objectives are implemented in a preschool, where most students are within that age group. The class has below-basic and advanced-level students. Below-basic level students have no understanding or ability to apply the skills taught. In contrast, advanced-level students can integrate skills and knowledge learned to solve learning problems (Howard, 2019). Advanced-level students can be illustrated by the two students with 100% mastery degree in the post-assessment data. From the pre-assessment data, one student had a 30% score, which improved to 100% by the end of the learning objective.

Students always portray varying learning abilities, constituting different performance levels. The assessment data shows different scores for Brice and Khalil, as evidenced in the table below.

Table 1

Student Assessment Data Table

Student Name Grade (%)
Pre-Assessment Formative Assessment Post-Assessment
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
Brice Stanton 30 70 70 70 70 100 100
Khalil Ervin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

It is essential to analyze and understand Brice’s and Khalil’s learning abilities to understand the most effective teaching strategies to incorporate to address their individual learning needs. The assessment data demonstrates improved learning knowledge for Brice, while Khalil acquires no skills in alphabet recognition and correct sound articulation for each letter. The teacher also evaluates the students’ learning experiences through their participation and engagement in the learning activities. Despite some students not mastering the learning objectives, their class engagement increased when the teacher fostered group activities.

6.2. Evidence and Interpretation of Impact on Student Learning

Accommodations and modifications in the teaching practices and methods significantly impacted student learning. Logan maintains a mastery level of letter-sound recognition throughout the assessment process. Brice demonstrated skills development, where in the pre-assessment, he had a 30% score, which progressed to 70% in the formative assessment, and in the post-assessment, he achieved a 100% mastery degree. On the contrary, Kamii and Khalil mastered no skills in the learning objectives, as shown by their 0% mastery score throughout the assessment. Incorporating group activities and multisensory teaching practices had significant implications for Brice’s skills development. From the assessment data, the teaching modifications benefited only one student. Further modifications are needed to address all students’ needs. The teacher should evaluate the needs of all the students to identify effective strategies to incorporate to manage the learning needs of the students and foster a conducive learning environment.


Howard, T. C. (2019). Why race and culture matter in schools: Closing the achievement gap in America’s classrooms. Teachers College Press.

Ngong, A. A. (2019). Effectiveness of multisensory learning approach in teaching reading to pupils with dyslexia in ordinary primary schools in Bamenda III Sub Division, Mezam Division, of the North West Region of Cameroon. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development3(5), 915-924.


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Reflecting on Professional Practices and Their Impact on Student Learning

Reflecting on Professional Practices and Their Impact on Student Learning

5. Instructional Decision-Making

Purpose for Step 5:
Reflect on professional practices, including differentiating instruction, modifying instruction, and communicating with students.

Describe how teaching strategies were modified during instruction based on student behavior, questions, responses, and/or performance. Describe how learning experiences were differentiated or modified based on formative assessment data analysis. Describe communication with students regarding their progress.

In your discussion, include the following:

• 5.1. Instructional modifications based on the needs of students

Describe and provide an example of how teaching and/or learning strategies were modified from the original plan to meet the needs of students based on student performance during instruction. (Examples: changing from groups of 4 to pairs, modifying an activity from the original lesson plan, deleting something from the lesson plan, or adding something to the lesson plan, etc.)
Justify your reasoning for making this accommodation/modification and give specific student behaviors, questions, and/or responses that prompted you to make the accommodation/modification.
Describe how the accommodation/modification led students toward meeting objectives.
Provide specific examples of student behaviors and questions, AND consider providing responses that justify the instructional modification(s).
• 5.2. Instructional differentiation or modifications based on formative assessments

Describe how formative assessment data were analyzed.
Provide at least one example of how assessment data analysis led to differentiate or modify a specific learning experience of a previously planned activity to accommodate differences in the developmental and/or educational needs of students.
Consider including multiple examples of research-based modifications of instruction to accommodate the individual needs of students.

6. Analysis of Student Learning

Purpose for Step 6:

Use assessment results to analyze student learning.


Use assessment data to analyze student learning. Analyze student learning gains for the whole class, subgroups, and individual students. Provide evidence of impact on student learning and draw conclusions on overall student learning gains.

In your discussion, include the following:

• 6.1. Data Analysis -Student Assessment Data

Record student scores/progress on all assessments using your student assessment data table created in Step 3. Calculate the percentage (out of 100) for each assessment (where applicable) AND calculate the percentage of mastery for the entire class. Describe the data results based on the following categories: whole class, subgroups (ex, gender, performance/ability level, language, age range, etc.), and individuals.

Whole Class – Consider the following:
Analyze the degree to which mastery was attained by the entire class.
What did your analysis of the student’s learning gains tell you about the degree of mastery of each objective?
What did the analysis of the learning gains tell you about the degree to which your overall purpose was achieved?
Discuss specific evidence from pre- and post-assessment (summative) data to support your response.
Subgroups – Consider the following:
Select a group characteristic (ex, performance/ ability level, language, age range, etc.). Provide a rationale for the selection of this characteristic.
Compare pre- and post-assessment (summative) results for the subgroup chosen. Summarize what the data show about student learning gains and include specific evidence used to support your response.
Individual Students – Consider the following:
Select two students who demonstrated different levels of performance and explain why it is important to understand and analyze the learning of these students.
Use pre-assessment, formative, and post-assessment (summative) data with examples of the student’ work to draw conclusions about the extent of these students’ learning gains.
Include samples of student work. Copies of pre-assessments, formative assessments, and post- assessments (summative) should be included.
Consider additional areas of discussion, which could include but are not limited to reflections on how the overall learning experiences were monitored throughout the unit or group of lessons.
• 6.2. Evidence and interpretation of impact on student learning

Describe evidence of impact on student learning gains in terms of numbers of students who achieved, made progress, or failed to master objectives using pre- and post-assessment (summative) data.
Include evidence of specific instruction/activities during the unit that may have led to that impact on student learning gains noted in pre- and post-assessment data.
Draw conclusions on overall student learning gains using all assessment data.
Provide evidence that includes details and reasoning for conclusions drawn.
Consider additional areas of discussion, which could include but are not limited to multiple hypotheses for why students did or did not achieve mastery on the post-assessment.

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