The student’s grade is the dependent variable since it is expected to change if technology is included or excluded. The independent variable is the cause that affects grades; hence, educational software (Technology) is the independent variable (Brown 5:24). The control group is the group that receives the usual method. The experimental group is the group that gets the software (Santrock 11).
Zone proximal development is the difference between things that a child can learn through guidance and help from a guardian and those that the child can learn independently. The proximal zone development can be determined by asking the child questions and then examining how they respond to the questions to see their capabilities (Santrock 50).
Authoritative parenting is a style where the parent is nurturing and supportive, but at the same time, they set stringent rules for the child. Authoritative parenting is excessively strict and places weighty expectations on the child. Permissive is where a parent relates to the child as an equal. Neglectful parenting is where the parent cares less about the child and their needs. Authoritative parenting often yields better outcomes for the child (Santrock 78).
Reliability is the trustworthiness of a test. A reliable test measures whether the trial has met its intended needs. Validity is the logical soundness of an examination. In other words, it questions whether the test makes sense and can be embraced by any scholar. A trial is valid if it measures the construct of difficulties and does not measure other things like memory (Santrock 501).
Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model is also known as the multi-store model of memory. This theory compares human memory to the memories of a computer. Thus, the human memory has the sensory memory, which is constantly receiving information, and most of it does not stick because it stays there for a short time. Then, the short-term memory stores information for a short time and disappears because of decay. Finally, long-term memory stores information for a lifetime (Santrock 265).
The pros of multiple-choice exams are that one can test very vast areas since they accommodates many questions. Moreover, the learner can answer many questions within a shorter time; answering is much faster and easier for the learner. It is always friendly because it entails only reading and choosing the correct answers, and its analysis is straightforward for teachers. Challenges are that it is time-consuming to prepare, and the data it gives is only quantitative, which cannot provide more information. Most importantly, these exams limit the learner from arguing further (Santrock 268). On the other hand, essays are also critical because they test several things simultaneously. The teacher can test language, application of knowledge, comprehension of knowledge, and organization of thought. It also allows the learner to argue. Its data is qualitative and hence can give more information to the teacher. Its disadvantages are that they take the time. Learners may not answer the right question or divert from the correct answer. Lastly, it is time-consuming for the teacher and the student regarding writing and reading (Santrock 268).
It is essential first to know that Skinner was the first psychologist to put this theory to the test when discussing the idea of operant conditioning. With this in mind, positive reinforcement encourages a behavior by giving rewards. On the other hand, negative reinforcement discourages a behavior by giving something uncomfortable or harmful to the person to deter the behavior. In class, a teacher can use positive reinforcement when giving children sweets or clapping for them when they behave well or participate in class. Negative reinforcement will be seen when the teacher provides the student with punishment for making noise in class (Santrock 229).
Positive punishment occurs when an aversive stimulus is used after an action to make someone stop that action. On the other hand, negative punishment is when a pleasant stimulus or activity is removed after an effort to discourage the behavior (Martin 66). In a class scenario, a teacher can use this to deter truancy. For instance, a child who likes to run away from school and does not attend classes can be positively punished by making the child clean the classroom or grounding the child whenever they skip classes. On the other hand, the child can be negatively punished if they are denied a chance to go to their favorite game or music class whenever they do not attend lessons. Essentially, this will be a form of negative punishment.
The child can show that they want attention by doing things that irritate others or cause a disturbance, such as making noise, being moody, shouting, and screaming. Sometimes, others may wish to take up roles that they are not given to grab the teacher’s attention. The modification plan would begin with providing this learner with a significant role, such as a class representative (Martin 83). The responsibility will make the child feel recognized and hence change behavior. The plan should also have reinforcement. If the student does not behave in a manner that causes a disturbance, they are rewarded and acknowledged in class. Failure to do this can lead to negative reinforcement to punish the child, like taking away their roles (Santrock 231).
Intrinsic motivation is performing a task because it motivates the person inwardly. Extrinsic motivation takes place when one performs a job because of external forces like punishments or because there is a reward (Santrock 310). In my case, intrinsic motivation has been serving people and helping them. It makes me feel good when I help someone in need. For instance, if a friend wants to understand a subject or something in class, they believe I know better, and I will be willing to help even without expecting anything in return. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation happens when I engage in sports. I have always participated in various sports to get medals, recognition, and even monetary rewards.
Brown, Kimberly “Educational Psychology: Lecture 2.” YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7iwEqluH4Y [Access date 2nd May 2022]
Martin Pear “Behavior Modification: what it is and how to do it” 9th Edition Prentice Hall. 2019
Santrock, John W. Education Psychology. 6th ed., McGraw Hill, 2011, pp. 11-511.
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Book is the only source: Educational Psychology 6th Edition by John W. Santrock, OR.
Pearson by Martin Pear “Behavior Modification” what it is and how to do it 9th Edition Prentice Hall.
Another source is a YouTube video 2-16 in Educational Psychology Lecture Only. Included in the files above each question.
Do NOT copy word-for-word from your textbook. It must be in your OWN words.
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