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Pernicious Anaemia Case Analysis

Pernicious Anaemia Case Analysis

The loss of the parietal cell caused a vitamin B12 deficit that made Teri more susceptible to pernicious anemia, which has deteriorated her condition over time. In this situation, Teri doesn’t have an intrinsic factor created by the parietal cells. Parietal cells are situated at the fundus and stomach body. They consider the movement, vitamin B12 absorption, which the ileum uses to produce red blood cells, and its damage causes pernicious anemia (Rodriguez & Shackelford, 2022). In the case of pernicious anemia, the body reacts by creating antibodies that target and eradicate the parietal cells. Significant harm from extreme disruptive anemia includes digestive system issues and nerve damage. An enzyme called pepsin aids in the activation of pepsinogen. Since Teri’s stomach lacks parietal cells that release hydrochloric acid, the pepsin has stayed dormant. Cell death in the parietal region in the stomach lining will signal the body to release hydrochloric acid where it is intended to do so because it is effective at decreasing the stomach PH. The kidney releases the hormone erythropoietin when there is a lack of oxygen, which promotes red blood cell growth. In the hemopoietin organs, division aids in the stimulation of erythropoiesis (Rodriguez & Shackelford, 2022). The kidney produces red blood cells due to the activation of hemopoietin tissues, which help address the oxygen deficit. However, the erythropoiesis pathway occurs in the liver or spleen in people with specific disorders as opposed to the bone marrow.


Different body systems that perform particular tasks to support the body’s regular operation make up human systems. The digestive, immunological, and cardiac systems are a few of the systems. The gastrointestinal system disintegrates the meal, and it is simple for the system to digest these elements in the form of nutrient content that improve the sustenance of the cells when liquids are incorporated into the chemical components, for example, fats and proteins. The system also takes energy that enhances its operation from the absorbed elements within the digestive system. White blood cells, bone marrow, immunoglobulins, and other components of the immune system combat pathogens like viruses and bacteria and eliminate them from the system (Rodriguez & Shackelford, 2022). The immune system also detects and counteracts potentially hazardous compounds that the body absorbs from the surrounding. Regulating blood circulation to all body systems requires the proper functioning of the cardiac system. I will discuss the findings concerning Teri’s situation in this essay.

Substances Absent in Terry

Teri does not possess an intrinsic factor in this situation. The parietal cells, found at the stomach fundus and body, are responsible for producing this component. The component helps the small intestines transport and absorb vitamin B12 to create red blood cells; their failure causes pernicious anemia (Rodriguez & Shackelford, 2022). In the case of pernicious anemia, the system reacts by producing antibodies that target and kill the parietal cells. Consistently chronic pernicious anemia may seriously harm nerves and cause digestive system issues.

Relationship between Parietal Cells Destruction and Vitamin B12 deficiency

The intrinsic factor found in the parietal cells makes it easier for the small intestine to carry and absorb the vitamin B12 needed to produce red blood cells. Having the stomach parietal cells destroyed caused severe hypochlorhydria and decreased vitamin B12 uptake, leading to pernicious anemia (Rodriguez & Shackelford, 2022). When a person has pernicious anemia, their body produces antibodies that target and kill parietal cells. Without intervention, the diseases might worsen and cause severe illnesses like nerve injury.

Why Teri Lacks Pepsin

Pepsin is the enzyme that may be present in the stomach and aids in the breakdown of proteins in food consumed. The loss of these parietal cells inside the gastric linings will signal the system to generate hydrochloric acid, reducing gastric PH as part of regular bodily function (Rodriguez & Shackelford, 2022). Due to a lack of parietal cells to release hydrochloric acid, which is necessary to activate pepsin out of its latent form of pepsinogen, Teri’s gastric pepsin has stayed inactive.

RBC’s Morphology

Teri’s blood would have red blood cells that resembled a biconcave flat disk with an indented center. The Red blood cells’ biconcave shape helps to increase the surface area available for oxygen transport in the cellular membranes (Ahmed et al., 2020). A healthy individual’s red blood cells are small and pliable, allowing them to squeeze into the body’s smallest capillary walls to aid the delivery of oxygen.


Hematocrit is a test used to determine the percentage volume of red blood cells in circulation. Red blood cell quantity and size determine the value. Its normal range for females is 36.1 to 44.3% (Mondal & Lotfollahzadeh, 2022). Alongside hemoglobin content, platelet, and white blood cell counts, hematocrit is a component of a person’s complete blood count findings.

Decreased Oxygen Levels and New RBC Formation

The process through which red blood cells are made in the tissues forming blood is known as erythropoiesis. When there is a lack of oxygen, the kidney releases erythropoietin hormone, which promotes red blood cell division and proliferation, activating erythropoiesis in tissues that make hemopoietin. The kidney produces red blood cells due to the activation of hemopoietin sites, which aid in addressing the body’s oxygen deficiency. The red bone marrow is usually where red blood cells are produced (Ahmed et al., 2020). However, for those who have certain illnesses, the process of erythropoiesis does not take place in the bone marrow. Instead, it manifests in the liver or spleen. Extramedullary erythropoiesis is a form of erythropoiesis that does not take place inside the bone marrow. For small kids, the femoral and tibial bone marrow create red blood cells at five years before they stop, and they continue to do so for roughly twenty-five years. Red blood cells are produced by the sternum, vertebrae, cranial bones, ribs, and pelvis throughout a person’s life, beginning at twenty-five years. The flat and long bones unite to create the body’s red blood cells at twenty years. The deposition of adipose causes the long bones to stop functioning as erythropoietin after age twenty, and all become yellow bone marrow.

Transporter of Oxygen

The glycoprotein hemoglobin carries the oxygen in circulation. Beta and alpha chains comprise the two chains that make up the molecule hemoglobin, which has a 64400Da molecular weight. The amino acids contained by the alpha chain are 141, while the beta chain includes 146 (Ahmed et al., 2020). The quantity of amino acids for each chain varies. Pairwise arrangement of the beta and alpha chains. Each remaining molecule is equally affected by a macromolecule alteration recognized in the polypeptide. The oxy configuration and the deoxy pattern are two alternative configurations of the hemoglobin’s subunits. It is said that iron molecules in an oxy configuration have been saturated with oxygen. On the other hand, the deoxy layout reveals that it possesses a space that isn’t filled with oxygen (Ahmed et al., 2020). Due to interstitial interactions, the deoxy derivative has a taut shape and salt linkages between subunits.

Cells Secreting Antibodies and the Role of Antibodies

Antibodies are released by plasma cells. Antibodies have the following purposes: They aid in the reduction of infectiousness. It controls the virus’s ability to reproduce by preventing adhesion to the person’s cell and making it difficult to penetrate the cell membrane. Opsonization is another function of antibodies. They prompt the clearance at this point by encapsulating them to safeguard every other cell from viruses, bacteria, or other organisms (Chiu et al., 2019). Producing other immune cells also makes pathogen killing easier, and reactions, such as the complement cascade, which facilitates the creation of proteins, aid in opsonizing or creating complicated membrane attacks.        

Types and Characteristics of Different Antibodies

lgG weighs about 150 kDa at the molecular level and contains two similar 50kDa heavy chains. IgM is larger compared to other immunoglobulins, and it has phagocyte characteristics. lgA releases the pathogen-binding mucosa tissue and also releases plasma cells. lgD has monomers composed of two light and two heavy chains, and it is a protein with a significant molecular weight consisting of five subunits. lgE releases substances that result in an allergic response and can provide venom defense (Chiu et al., 2019).

Structure of Immunoglobulin

Two light and two heavy immunoglobulin chains can be further divided into a variable region. The constant regions specify characteristics like activating Fc receptor sites by attaching them with a compliment, while the variable regions aid in adhering to antigens (Chiu et al., 2019). The complicated series known as a gene organization is employed to make the variable region and may also be subjected to antigens to speed up affinity development.


In conclusion, this example shows how the lack of a single component in a system can have systemic effects and implications throughout the entire body. The body needs correct nourishment and maintenance to improve the sustenance of the cells. It also takes energy from the substances that come through the digestive system to help it work. White blood cells, bone marrow, immunoglobulins, and other components of the immune system combat disease-causing viruses and bacteria and eliminate them from the system. The immune system also detects and inactivates potentially hazardous chemicals the body absorbs from its surroundings.


Ahmed, Mostafa H., Mohini S. Ghatge, and Martin K. Safo. “Hemoglobin: structure, function and allostery.” Vertebrate and invertebrate respiratory proteins, lipoproteins and other body fluid proteins (2020): 345-382.

Chiu, M. L., Goulet, D. R., Teplyakov, A., & Gilliland, G. L. (2019). Antibody structure and function: the basis for engineering therapeutics. Antibodies8(4), 55.

Mondal, H., & Lotfollahzadeh, S. (2022). Hematocrit. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.

Rodriguez, N. M., & Shackelford, K. (2022). Pernicious anemia. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.


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Teri goes to see her PCP after feeling depressed for the last couple of months as well as experiencing a seizure earlier this week. The physician orders a few test; results are shown below:

Low hematocrit
Low levels of Vit B12
Low Oxygen levels
Presence of autoantibodies against the parietal cell
The peripheral blood smear shows abnormal RBC (large pale RBCs)
After viewing the results, Teri is diagnosed with Pernicious Anemia, a condition in which autoantibodies destroy the parietal cells found within the stomach.

Address each of the following regarding Teri’s case:

Since the parietal cell is destroyed, which substance(s) is Teri lacking as a consequence?
What is the correlation between the destruction of parietal cells and Vit B12 deficiency?
Due to her condition, Teri lacks Pepsin. Explain why.
If Teri were healthy, explain what her RBCs would look like.
What is hematocrit?
Low oxygen levels stimulate her body to create new RBCs. Which process do they stimulate? Explain that process in depth.
What protein transports oxygen in our body and explains its structure?
What cell secretes antibodies and explains the various functions of antibodies?
What are the different types of antibodies, and what are the two characteristics of each?
Explain the structure of an immunoglobulin.

Support your opinions with evidence from your readings and research.
You must reference a minimum of three (3) scholarly sources in your paper, which includes one non-Internet source.
Use current APA Style to format your paper and to cite your sources.
Your paper/total responses must be 3– to 4 pages in length, not including the title page, abstract, and reference pages.
Title page: Case Title, Full Name, Section, Date, Instructor, and Campus
Abstract: Summarize the case in a paragraph
Introduction: The physiological importance of the digestive system, immune system, and cardiovascular system for the proper functioning of the human body
Body: Organize your analysis with headings that thoroughly answer the prompts
Conclusion: Summarize the paper in a paragraph

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