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Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution-Alzheimers Disease

Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution-Alzheimers Disease

According to ALZ.org (n.d.), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable condition that affects a person’s social, cognitive, and behavioral abilities. Clinicians should develop individualized interventions to optimize the management of AD. This essay examines how leadership and change management affect AD management. It also examines effective communication and collaboration techniques, nursing standards, government policies, and the use of healthcare technology to manage Alzheimer’s disease.

Leadership and Change Management

Leaders can design and implement evidence-based practices in the management of AD by embracing change management.  Krakoff (n.d.) states that effective change management techniques involve proper planning, honesty, stakeholder engagement, open communication, training, and evaluation. To begin with, proper planning allows the multidisciplinary team to identify the appropriate measures to address patients’ needs. Planning also makes task delegation easier among team members and avoids confusion. Open communication, on the other hand, encourages knowledge exchange among team members, creates harmony, and enables the team to achieve common goals (Krakoff, n.d.). Subsequently, stakeholder involvement fosters buy-in and contributes to the EBP’s success. Honesty allows the multidisciplinary team to uphold autonomy and beneficence. In this context, patients are involved in the decision-making process (Krakoff, n.d.). Notably, training will ensure that the interdisciplinary team demonstrates acceptable competency, whereas evaluation will determine how the intervention affected AD patients.

According to Zainol et al. (2021), effective leadership impacts the execution of evidence-based practice. Proper delegation of duties, excellent communication, decisiveness, and teamwork are all relevant leadership strategies. Decisive team members are better able to choose and put into practice the most effective AD management treatments. Delegation of tasks and collaborative decision-making improve interdisciplinary teamwork in Alzheimer’s disease management by avoiding confusion and conflict. Also, Zainol et al. (2021) report that good communication abilities help to avoid confusion, foster openness, and build rapport between leaders and team members, all of which contribute to the success of an EBP intervention. Additionally, effective communication fosters collaboration among the interdisciplinary team involved in the management of AD.

Nursing ethics guided my actions when formulating the patient’s intervention. To begin, I maintained veracity by being forthright and truthful to the patient. Furthermore, I preserved justice by refraining from being prejudiced against the patient and her family. Also, I acknowledge that the patient is an autonomous party by allowing her to choose from a variety of evidence-based interventions. In addition, I demonstrated beneficence and non-maleficence by ensuring that the intervention benefits the patient and optimizes patient outcomes.

Communication and Collaboration Strategies

My aunt, a 69-year-old African-American woman, was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease three years ago. She was accompanied by her spouse. Examination indicates perceptual-motor impairments, muscular twitches, and reduced impulse control, as shown by the indiscriminate use of vulgar language. Her capacity for concentration has dwindled in the last year. In addition, for the last six months, she has had difficulties recognizing close family members. Her spouse reports that the patient has been restless and wandering at night for the previous month. Further investigation finds that she does not take her medication as prescribed.

I chose AD as the focus of my capstone because it has substantial economic and health implications. For example, the annual cost of managing the condition is at least $159 billion and is anticipated to approach $500 billion by 2040 (CDC.gov, 2020). Furthermore, Galvin et al. (2021) report AD impairs a person’s capacity to carry out daily activities. Nurses play an important role in treating and preventing Alzheimer’s disease and are critical to the screening process. They are also critical in teaching and advising patients and their families. This improves public comprehension of Alzheimer’s disease and the various coping techniques. As a result, patients and their families can manage the disease effectively.

Soliciting patients’ input optimizes the management of their medical condition.  It enables medical professionals to comprehend their patients’ preferences, requirements, and values. This results in holistic treatment and patient-centeredness (AHRQ.gov, n.d.). Additionally, AHRQ.gov (n.d.) reports that it allows for patient education and increases the possibility of adherence to their care plans. Improved patient outcomes reduce the healthcare costs related to lengthy hospital stays.

According to Xue and Heffernan (2021), the interdisciplinary team can employ therapeutic communication to improve collaboration and interaction with patients and their families. Therapeutic communication strategies allow healthcare providers to maintain objectivity while avoiding discriminatory or stereotyped actions (Xue & Heffernan, 2021). Empathy, for example, enables healthcare personnel to share the emotions of patients and their families. Furthermore, recapitulating and paraphrasing allows the patient to recognize that their concerns have been heard and comprehended (Xue & Heffernan, 2021). Other therapeutic communication tactics include introspection, active listening, and confrontation.

Nursing Practice Standards and Organizational or Governmental Policies

My intervention was influenced by the American Nurses Association’s (ANA) practice standards and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. To begin, the ANA recommends that nurses use the nursing process to manage patients (MO.gov, n.d.). To improve the quality of care, nurses should also take a proactive role in quality control and interdisciplinary teamwork (MO.gov, n.d.). Moreover, the ANA’s practice standards champion the use of practice guidelines for standardized care (MO.gov, n.d.). These provisions influenced the design of my intervention. For example, I adopted evidence-based methods and patient-centeredness while adhering to current recommendations on AD management.

The provisions of HIPAA also made it possible for me to use medical technology for patient management. Edemekong et al. (2022) report that HIPAA promotes the privacy, security, and secrecy of personal health information (PHI) that is transmitted electronically. According to HIPAA, unauthorized access to PHI is prohibited unless when specifically exempted by the legislation (Edemekong et al., 2022). Based on these provisions, I will protect the patient’s PHI and only make it available to authorized personnel. This is essential because my intervention leverages telehealth to manage AD.

Proposed Intervention and the Quality of Care, Patient Safety, Costs

My intervention includes the use of medication as well as lifestyle changes. Following this, pharmacotherapy provides symptomatic relief for Alzheimer’s disease (Galvin et al., 2021). These treatments provide the best results for patients with mild to severe Alzheimer’s disease. As a result, early AD diagnosis and treatment improve the disease’s prognosis. Examples of pharmacotherapy include cholinesterase Inhibitors such as donepezil and N -methyl-D-aspartate inhibitors such as memantine (Galvin et al., 2021). Medication adherence will be achieved via reminder messages and alarms (De Marchi et al., 2021). Lifestyle modification addresses nutrition and physical activity metrics. Dietary guidelines include nutritional programs such as fresh fruits and vegetables (Galvin et al., 2021). Physical activity is advantageous because it decreases brain atrophy linked with Alzheimer’s disease.

The proposed intervention will increase treatment quality and improve patient outcomes while lowering healthcare costs. To begin, it seeks to enhance adherence to pharmacotherapy through the use of reminder messages and alarms (De Marchi et al., 2021). Adherence to pharmacotherapy improves symptomatic control of Alzheimer’s disease, hence better patient outcomes. Better patient outcomes lead to fewer AD-related hospital stays and lower healthcare costs. Second, the intervention incorporates lifestyle modification. Cardiorespiratory exercise decreases brain atrophy linked with Alzheimer’s disease (Galvin et al., 2021). This leads to better patient outcomes, fewer hospitalizations, and lower healthcare expenses.

In the United States, the Alzheimer’s Association publishes benchmark data on AD. This is performed by yearly reporting on various aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. The annual report includes issues such as the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease, mortality and morbidity trends, healthcare costs, management, and the societal effect of AD (Alzheimer’s Association, n.d.). Furthermore, the Alzheimer’s Association publishes updates on Alzheimer’s disease awareness. Furthermore, the annual reports enable institutions to gauge their progress with that of other facilities and to assess the need for change depending on the results of their evaluations.

Technology, Care Coordination, and Community Resources

The management of AD can benefit from telehealth technology. De Marchi et al. (2021) assert that mobile health improves care delivery by improving adherence to treatment plans and providing a platform for education. Medication adherence is improved by mobile health features, including reminders and alerts (De Marchi et al., 2021). De Marchi et al. (2021) also note that remote patient monitoring (RPM) makes it possible to offer care quickly and enhance patient follow-ups. Wearables and sensors are utilized in RPM to track and send patients’ vital signs to the multidisciplinary team for analysis. To improve patient management, video conferencing enables real-time communication between AD patients, their families, and medical professionals.

Care coordination is advantageous because it encourages collaboration and the provision of effective healthcare services. Examples of parties involved in coordinating care for AD patients include pharmacists, nurses, physicians, dietitians, and laboratory technicians. Nurses assist in the proper administration of medications (Schmutz et al., 2019). While pharmacists counsel patients on the use of drugs and potential adverse effects, physicians diagnose and provide patient-centered treatment strategies. Nutritionists provide information on various dietary habits to patients and their families. Consistently, laboratory technicians carry out tests and deliver results promptly to aid in proper diagnosis.

The Alzheimer’s Association offers numerous community-oriented programs. Following this, local activities offered by this organization include in-person peer support groups and continuous education (ALZ.org, n.d.). AD patients and families socialize through support groups and discuss their disease process (ALZ.org, n.d.). By so doing, the Alzheimer’s Association allows AD patients to gain better control of their disease.

References

AHRQ.gov. (n.d.). How Patient and Family Engagement Benefits Your Hospital. https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/professionals/systems/hospital/engagingfamilies/howtogetstarted/How_PFE_Benefits_Hosp_508.pdf

ALZ.org. (n.d.). Programs and Support. https://www.alz.org/help-support/i-have-alz/programs- support#:~:text=Call%20the%20Alzheimer’s%20Association%2024,crisis%20assistance%3B%20and%20emotional%20support.

Alzheimer’s Association. (n.d.). Alzheimer’s Disease & Dementia Help. https://www.alz.org/

CDC.gov. (2020). Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias. https://www.cdc.gov/aging/aginginfo/alzheimers.htm#:~:text=Alzheimer’s%20disease%20is%20the%20most,thought%2C%20memory%2C%20and%20language.

De Marchi, F., Contaldi, E., Magistrelli, L., Cantello, R., Comi, C., & Mazzini, L. (2021). Telehealth in neurodegenerative diseases: Opportunities and challenges for patients and physicians. Brain Sciences, 11(2), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020237

Edemekong, F. P., Annamaraju, P., & Hayde, J. M. (2022). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK500019/

Galvin, J. E., Aisen, P., Langbaum, J. B., Rodriguez, E., Sabbagh, M., Stefanacci, R., Stern, R. A., Vassey, E. A., de Wilde, A., West, N., & Rubino, I. (2021). Early Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evolving the Care Team for Optimal Patient Management. Frontiers in Neurology, 11(January), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.592302

Krakoff, S. (n.d.). The 10 Best Organizational Change Management Strategies. https://online.champlain.edu/blog/best-organizational-change-management-strategies

MO.gov. (n.d.). Standards of Nursing Practice. https://health.mo.gov/living/lpha/phnursing/standards.php.

Schmutz, J. B., Meier, L. L., & Manser, T. (2019). How effective is teamwork really? The relationship between teamwork and performance in healthcare teams: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 9(9), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028280

Xue, W., & Heffernan, C. (2021). Therapeutic communication within the nurse-patient relationship: A concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 27(6), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12938

Zainol, N. Z., Kowang, T. O., Hee, O. C., Fei, G. C., & Kadir, B. Bin. (2021). Managing Organizational Change through Effective Leadership: A Review from Literature. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v11-i1/8370

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Question 


Develop an intervention (your capstone project), as a solution to the patient, family, or population problem you’ve defined. Submit the proposed intervention to the faculty for review and approval. This solution needs to be implemented (shared) with your patient, family, or group.

Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution-Alzheimers Disease

Patient Family or Population Health Problem Solution-Alzheimers Disease

You are not to share your intervention with your patient, family, or group or move on to Assessment 5 before your faculty reviews/approves the solution you submit in Assessment 4. In a separate written deliverable, write a 5-7 page analysis of your intervention.

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