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Nurs-fpx 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Nurs-fpx 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Nurs-fpx 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

One of the objectives of Healthy People 2030 is to improve the health and safety of Infants (ODPHP, 2022). Statistics presented by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) indicate that close to 4 million infants are born in the United States. Annually (ODPHP, 2022). Unfortunately, thousands of these newly born children die as a result Of various conditions, which include short gestation, low birth weight, and sudden infant death Syndrome (ODPHP, 2022). While preterm birth (short gestation) and low birth weight may be known to many, sudden infant death syndrome may be unknown to a significant population.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, simply SIDS, is defined as the unexplained death of a healthy baby less than a year old that mainly occurs during sleep (Mayo Clinic, 2022). In other quarters, sudden infant death is referred to as “cot” or “crib” death because infants die mainly in cribs (Mayo Clinic, 2022). According to Duncan and Byard (2018), while the description is inclusive of babies up to one (1) year of age, it is estimated that 95% of SIDS deaths happen within half a year of life, with a peak incidence in children aged between two (2) and four (4) months. As further noted by Duncan and Byard (2018), there are no diagnostic features that can be associated with death from SIDS, although certain unique features are associated with this condition.

Nurs-fpx 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Community Affected (Teenage Mothers)

Age is one of the distinctive features associated with SIDS. Medical research has shown that maternal age below 20 years is linked with an elevated risk of SIDS (Huang et al., 2021). To further support, statistics presented by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) indicated that, between 2017 and 2018, 8.77 deaths per 1,000 births recorded among infants of teenage mothers aged 15-19 was considerably higher compared to the death incidence among infants of mothers aged 20 and above (Woodall and Driscoll, 2020). Several factors have been identified as possible causes of the high incidence of SIDS among teenage mothers, including drug & substance abuse during pregnancy, mental health problems, high likelihood of developing anemia during pregnancy, socio-economic disadvantage, preterm birth, and delivery of low birth-weight infants (Wong et al., 2020; Huang et al., 2021). In addition to this, research conducted by Pease et al. (2017) suggests that while teenage mothers may be aware of the recommendations concerning safe sleeping practices, a significant fraction of them do not follow such guidelines.

What’s more, although the ODPHP recognizes and acknowledges that infant deaths have declined over the last few years, disparities by race/ethnicity, income level, and geographic location continue to persist (ODPHP, 2022). Such disparities are notable in the context of SIDS, and more specifically among teen mothers. In 2017-2018, for example, according to statistics by the NCHS, children of non-Hispanic black teenagers were more likely to die with a 12.54 incidence rate, compared to infants of non-Hispanic white and Hispanic with an 8.43 and 6.47 incidences rate, respectively (Woodall and Driscoll, 2020). These findings are consistent with findings from the U.S. Department of Human and Health Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) concerning the non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AIAN).

On the one hand, statistics from the HHS indicate AIAN babies have a 50% higher likelihood of succumbing to complications associated with low birth weight as compared to non-Hispanic white newborns (HHS, 2021). Also, the HHS statistics indicate that in 2019, AIAN mothers had close to three times the likelihood of receiving late or no prenatal care compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts (HHS, 2021). Furthermore, HHS statistics suggest that AIAN mothers are at a 70% increased probability of smoking compared to non-Hispanic white mothers (HHS, 2021). On the other hand, statistics presented by the CDC for a survey conducted between 2015 and 2019 indicated that non-Hispanic AIAN had the highest level of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) rates at 216.0 per 100,000 live births (CDC, 2022). The community also recorded the highest proportion of deaths as a result of unknown causes at 40 % (CDC, 2022). The logical deduction from these findings is that infants of teen mothers from the AIAN community are at a considerably higher risk of dying from SIDS.

Nurs-fpx 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Developing SMART Goals

To reduce the number of teenage deaths associated with SIDS, I enlisted Amka Deborah who is a 19-year-old first-time mother from Anchorage, Alaska. Amka is a member of the non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native community (AIAN). Consistent with some of the findings presented above, Amka was late in receiving prenatal care. On delivery, Amka’s baby was below the normal birth weight. After having a brief discussion, Amka agreed to attend an education session on SIDS interventions I will be presenting in a few days.

As a part of the conversation and collaboration with Amka, we agreed to set some objectives for the education session. In developing such goals, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the interrogation of several issues, namely what, why, who, when, and how (CDC (b), 2022). In line with this recommendation, we agreed that Amka would present herself for the education session. We agreed that such an exercise is important because her baby falls under a cohort of infants characterized by a high SIDS incidence rate. Moreover, as a nurse, we agreed that I would train Amka on the various strategies to reduce the risk of SIDS. In answering the issue of when we agreed that the education session would take place in seven days. Last but not least, we agreed that the education session would intake theoretical and practical exercises.

After interrogating the above-mentioned issues, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention establishes a need to define some SMART goals. SMART is an acronym that stands for specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound (CDC (b), 2022). In line with this recommendation, Amka and I agreed that at the end of the education session, she would be able to practically demonstrate the supine sleeping position. Also, we agreed that Amka would “stay clean” from drugs and substance abuse for at least the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding. In case of slip-ups in her journey of “staying clean”, we agreed that Amka will not share a bed with the infant.

Nurs-fpx 4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan


SIDS is a considerable health challenge among the non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native community (AIAN). The high incidence of SIDS in this community may be related to certain physical, maternal, and sociocultural risk factors, as indicated in this paper. Luckily, most of these risks can be mitigated through the adoption of environmental modification and educative approaches such as offering training on “back sleeping.” Through the education session arranged, Amka Deborah has an opportunity to learn about SIDS and how to reduce the risk of her child dying of the condition. As a nurse, the education session is an opportunity to advance one of the goals of Healthy People 2030, that is, to improve the health and safety of infants.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2022). Data and Statistics. Retrieved 27 July 2022, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC (b). (2022). Develop SMART Objectives. Retrieved 27 July 2022, from smart-objectives.html.

Duncan, J.R., & Byard, R.W. (2018). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: An Overview. In: Duncan JR, Byard RW, editors. SIDS Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: The Past, the Present, and the Future. Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press.

Huang, L. Y., Chen, W. J., Yang, Y. N., Wu, C. Y., Wu, P. L., Tey, S. L., & Liu, H. K. (2021). Maternal Age, the Disparity across Regions and Their Correlation to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Children, 8(9), 771.

Mayo Clinic. (2022). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 27 July 2022, from conditions/sudden-infant-death-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20352800#.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, ODPHP. (2022). Reduce the rate of infant deaths — MICH- 02 – Healthy People 2030 | Retrieved 2 August 2022, from objectives/infants/reduce-rate-infant-deaths-mich-02.

Pease, A., Ingram, J., Blair, P. S., & Fleming, P. J. (2017). Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS: a qualitative study. BMJ Paediatrics Open, 1(1).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, HHS. (2021). Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives. HHS. Retrieved 27 July 2022, from

Wong, S. P., Twynstra, J., Gilliland, J. A., Cook, J. L., & Seabrook, J. A. (2020). Risk factors and birth outcomes associated with teenage pregnancy: a Canadian sample. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 33(2), 153-159.

Woodall, A., & Driscoll, A. (2020). Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mortality Rates of Infants Born to Teen Mothers: United States, 2017–2018. CDC. Retrieved 2 August 2022, from


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