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NSG 4074 Week 2 Discussion

NSG 4074 Week 2 Discussion

NSG 4074 Week 2 Discussion

Topic 1: Disease Outbreak

Infectious diseases result from bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses. Some infectious diseases can be passed from one person to another, while some can be passed from animals to humans. People get infected by some when they take contaminated food or water. Signs of infectious diseases vary according to the organism that causes the infection. Some infectious diseases like measles can be prevented through vaccines.

The natural history of chickenpox

 Chickenpox is a contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). In the early 1990s, it was common in America, and approximately four million people got it. Around 10500 to 13000 people were hospitalized with chickenpox, while 100 to 150 died every year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). More than 3.5 million cases are reported yearly, with 9,000 hospitalizations and 100 deaths prevented by administering vaccinations. The primary method of transmission is through physical contact with an infected person. Anyone with the disease is infectious in the first two days before the rash develops until the lesions have crusted (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). However, people who have already been vaccinated rarely develop crusted lesions.

Presenting symptoms and outbreak characteristics

 Individuals who have not had chickenpox or the vaccination can be infected. The condition lasts approximately four to 7 days. The primary indication of chickenpox is an itchy rash and blisters containing fluid (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).

The blisters turn into scabs with time. The rash can begin on the chest, back, and face and spread to the whole body. It can be applied to the eyelids, mouth, and genital area. Blisters can take a week to develop into scabs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Other symptoms of chickenpox include fatigue, fever, poor appetite, and headache. Although individuals who have received the vaccine against chickenpox rarely get infected, few cases are reported; hence, people can develop the disease even when vaccinated. However, in their cases, they may experience few symptoms and get sick for shorter periods than those who are not vaccinated (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Complications are not familiar with chickenpox, although they occur. The complications include dehydration, sepsis, infection of the brain, and infections of the lungs.

Identify an occurrence of the disease.

 Studies show that human beings are the only hosts of chickenpox. Although there are vaccinations for this disease, there are cases reported (Misra et al., 2021). Summit County public health personnel said there were instances of middle- and elementary-school children having chickenpox. Local healthcare practitioners reported 10 cases of varicella since August 2021. The patients were reported among school-going children in Summit County who are not vaccinated against chickenpox (Seaman, 2021). The vaccine is given in two doses, and it is a requirement for students attending school in Colorado. The occurrence relates to the CDC reports that people at risk of getting infected are babies, adolescents, and people with weak immune systems. School children in the event had not been vaccinated against the infection and were at high risk (Seaman, 2021).

How closely did that outbreak resemble the case definition?

 The outbreak resembled the case definition because the affected children were not vaccinated against the disease. The disease spread quickly because the children were in close contact. School-going children are at a higher risk of getting infected because of close physical contact. They were in touch when the virus was highly contagious (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).

In conclusion, infectious health conditions result from microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. People can acquire them from others, from animal contact or insect bites. The diseases are treated differently depending on their severity. Some of them can be prevented through vaccinations. Illnesses like chickenpox can affect vaccinated people, although the severity is low.

NSG 4074 Week 2 Discussion

Topic 2: Epidemiological Applications

The multifactorial etiology of diseases focuses on the factors and levels leading to infections. It means to focus on different varieties and different risk factors. The history of illness is based on other epidemiological studies like retrospective and cross-sectional studies undertaken in diverse populations. One of the uses of these epidemiological models is to provide information that can be applied to evaluating public health policies related to disease control and prevention(Feng, 2014, vii section). Illness history alludes to the advancement of a sickness cycle in an individual over time and without intervention. The knowledge of natural disease history starts with the accumulation of and exposure to factors capable of causing diseases. Without any medical intervention, this process ends with either disability, recovery, or even death. There are various levels of prevention. One of them is primary prevention, like preventing disease, disability, or injury from taking place. Examples are immunizations, exercise, and diet. Vaccines and medications may significantly influence the outcomes of the disease spread and control(Feng, 2014, p. 165).

The other type of prevention is secondary prevention, which emphasizes early detection and prompt treatment of illnesses, injuries, or disabilities. For instance, secondary prevention is screening for colon cancer. The final type of prevention is tertiary prevention. It includes rehabilitation from illnesses and injuries and getting them back to society. Nurses should incorporate these concepts into the health promotion of clients in community settings. They should also develop strategies to approach client risk in these health promotion activities. Individuals and families assumed more responsibility for their health because health education, always a part of nursing, has become increasingly popular (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2019,1.37). First, nurses should identify the risk factors for disease. Risk factors include ethnicity, lifestyle, age, and gender. Nurses should also plan and participate in community health education and inform their clients of proper immunization schedules. Nurses should provide relevant information about health promotion as well as maintenance recommendations. Examples of such information are immunizations and physician’s visits. Nurses should also help the client to maintain an optimum level of health. Nurses analyze the scope and quality of care provided by examining the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of nursing interventions(Stanhope & Lancaster, 2019, p. 37). Nurses are also responsible for assessing client’s understanding of health promotion activities and behaviors, such as exercise and weight control, and implementing and evaluating community-based client care.


 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Chickenpox.

Misra, V., Gawali, D., Jain, A. K., Khetan, R., & Jain, S. B. (2021). Acute rise in the incidence of chickenpox due to temperature variation in a specific locality of Gwalior city. Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, 46(2), 323.

Seaman, J. (2021, November 17). A cluster of chickenpox cases was reported in school-aged children in Summit County. The Burlington Record.

Feng, Z. (2014). Applications of epidemiological models to public health policymaking: The role of heterogeneity in model predictions (2nd ed.). World Scientific Publishing.

Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2019). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (10th ed.). Mosby.


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NSG 4074 Week 2 Discussion

Topic 1: Disease Outbreak

Select an infectious disease and research the CDC website for information about the condition, including:

Its natural history, presenting symptoms, and outbreak characteristics

Identify an occurrence of the disease by searching the Internet for recent reports of this disease and compare that episode or event with information from the CDC website.

How closely did that outbreak resemble the case definition?

Topic 2: Epidemiological Applications

Describe how the concept of multifactorial etiology relates to the natural history of disease and the different levels of prevention.

How should the nurse incorporate these concepts into the health promotion of clients in community settings?

How should the nurse approach client risk in these health promotion activities?

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