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NSG 4055 Week 3 Project – Illness and Disease Management

NSG 4055 Week 3 Project – Illness and Disease Management


There are many things related to the care of our diabetes patients. Our task is to ensure that they understand all aspects of the disease so that they can be helped to improve their care of themselves. It is necessary to consider them as important as the caregivers in the process of care (Njeru et al., 2018). A patient needs to be healthy and have improved management of blood sugar. If a patient does not want to achieve these goals, every intervention that we employ will not give the desired outcome in the care process.

Support Needs

In the second week, I gave my patient D.K. a diabetes questionnaire. Based on the provided answers from D.K., I had to devise a care plan according to the needs of the patient. These support options are listed below:

Ensure that her eye exam plan is scheduled by May 2020 and guide her to send a copy of the study to our office for registration. I will ensure that the patient understands the significance of these tests, as diabetes can cause damage to the retina (called retinopathy).

We will also ensure that a diabetic foot test will be done for the assessment of neuropathy before D.K. leaves the office I will enlighten the patient about the importance of this test and why it is necessary to perform this test once a year.

Make sure D.K. understands the significance of following directions and always informs us in advance that she needs additional medications so that she does not run out of them medications.

Make sure she never adjusts her insulin dose by herself. If other doctors try to change this, then she must see her.

It is necessary to talk to her about the physical activities. Enlighten her that no less than 30 minutes of aerobic exercise or walking every day is very beneficial for weight loss and heart. Therefore, this will consequently assist in managing the blood sugar.

She must ensure that she will inform us about any changes in her current health status and surgeries.

I will explain to her how important it is to control blood sugar at least three times. She can also check this before going to sleep. I will see to it that she understands that she needs to record the measurements so that we can adjust the dose if necessary.

I will also ensure that she understands the significance of monitoring her blood sugar level three times a day before

I will explicate how important it is to keep track of the decrease in blood sugar levels and the time of day we may make any.

Record the time and degree of decrease in blood glucose so the healthcare provider knows the proper way to manage it.

Explain to D.K. that she does not have to look for cheap. She only needs 15 grams of carbohydrates.

Explain that if the blood glucose in the glucagon emergency kit is too low, an emergency kit should be prepared. This is especially useful because most of its reflux occurs on the night the office is

Explain the ways in which diabetes affects the nerves in the legs, and therefore, we examine the foot every D.K. must report abnormal feelings as she noticed.

Explain to D.K. why alcohol is harmful to people, especially people with

Explain the importance of quitting alcohol or at least reduce costs.

Explain to D.K. why drug abuse is harmful to people, especially.

Make sure the requested information is accessible, and I will read all the information with her to let me know if she fully understands

NSG 4055 Week 3 Project – Illness and Disease Management

Appropriate Interventions of the Nurse

When talking about diabetes, I mentioned several goals. Nurses and caregivers may have a crucial role in achieving these goals. We need help to reduce the number of diagnosed cases of diabetes. She can start from the first days of training. For example, if someone has diabetes, we can teach them how to manage illness. The patients must be educated to effectively care for their legs and feet (Ajay et al., 2016). Amputation is so common in diabetics only because of inadequate personal care. They must be vigilant so that we are aware of any pain or numbness that begins to appear. We must ensure that they comprehend the significance of monitoring and managing blood sugar and diets to control blood sugar (Suinyuy et al., 2019). It is also significant to ensure that the patients understand the importance of controlling cholesterol levels (Doenges et al., 2019). It is significant for the health of the heart.

Nurses as Advocates

We also discuss the significance of annual foot and eye exams. We should educate the patients to perform these tasks. Uncontrolled diabetes can seriously damage people’s eyes and legs (De Silva et al., 2016). We must make sure to evaluate the changes that occur as soon as possible before the patient discovers that they are occurring. It is also important that the patients have an annual dental exam (Rossaneis et al., 2016).

Implementing Healthy People 2020 Goals

We can also use various interventions to treat diabetics and achieve Healthy People 2020 goals. We must ensure that the patients monitor their blood sugar levels before meals as well as at bedtime (Healthy People, 2020). It is imperative that the hemoglobin A1C must be monitored every three months to ensure that blood glucose levels are maintained. It is essential to assess and ensure that the patient understands the signs of hypoglycemia (Healthy People, 2020). They must pay attention to tremors, anxiety, and difficulty in speaking. We need to control the temperature, heart rate, color, and feeling of the legs. These are just a few of the ways we can help treat patients.

Impact of the Environment on Patient’s Health

The risk of other health complications related to diabetes is high. Continuous management is needed to control blood glucose and monitor microvascular diseases (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), as well as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (Rossaneis et al., 2016). The lower limb amputation rate in diabetic patients is 10 to 20 times higher, and 7% of diabetic patients have vision-threatening retinopathy. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes alone is estimated to be 12-55%, about 10 times the risk of people without diabetes (Gettings et al., 2018). Finally, people with diabetes have 2 to 3 times the risk of cardiovascular disease than people without diabetes (Suinyuy et al., 2019).


There are several things that a nurse practitioner can do to manage diabetes. When our patients see the content of medical care, they get surprised, and they need help so that they can effectively manage their illness. However, with our help, we can help them understand better than when they first arrived so that they do not get overwhelmed by the illness and participate effectively in the care process.


Ajay, V. S., Jindal, D., Roy, A., Venugopal, V., Sharma, R., Pawar, A., … & Prabhakaran, D. (2016). Development of smartphone‐enabled hypertension and diabetes mellitus management package to facilitate evidence‐based care delivery in primary healthcare facilities in India: The mPower heart project. Journal of the American Heart Association, 5(12), e004343.

Baptista, D. R., Wiens, A., Pontarolo, R., Regis, L., Reis, W. C. T., & Correr, C. J. (2016). The Chronic care model for type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 8(1), 7.

De Silva, A. P., De Silva, S. H. P., Haniffa, R., Liyanage, I. K., Jayasinghe, K. S. A., Katulanda, P., … & Rajapakse, L. C. (2016). A survey on socioeconomic determinants of diabetes mellitus management in a lower middle-income setting. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 74.

Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., & Murr, A. C. (2019). Nursing care plans Guidelines for individualizing client care across the life span. FA Davis.

Gettings, J. V., O’Connor, R., O’Doherty, J., Hannigan, A., Cullen, W., Hickey, L., & O’Regan (2018). A snapshot of type two diabetes mellitus management in general practice prior to the introduction of diabetes cycle of care. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-), 187(4), 953-957.

Healthy People 2020. (2020). Diabetes: Objectives. Retrieved from:

Njeru, J. W., Wieland, M. L., Kwete, G., Tan, E. M., Breitkopf, C. R., Agunwamba, A. A., … & Murad, M. H. (2018). Diabetes mellitus management among patients with limited English proficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 33(4), 524-532.

Rossaneis, M. A., Haddad, M. D. C. F. L., Mathias, T. A. D. F., & Marcon, S. S. (2016). Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem, 24.

Suinyuy, L. M. C., Fokunang, T. E., Mesmin, D., Ngo, N. V., & Fokunang, C. N. (2019). Evaluation of the therapeutic approach and outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus management strategies in Cameroon. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-15.


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NSG 4055 Week 3 Project – Illness and Disease Management

Using the information from the interview you conducted in Week 2, list in descending order the support needs of your participant. Also, discuss how to implement the objectives of Healthy People 2020 to increase wellness. Give examples of appropriate interventions of the professional caregiver, for example, the nurse.

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