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NR-505 Week 5 Discussion – Collaboration Café

NR-505 Week 5 Discussion – Collaboration Café

Since working in a pediatric emergency room, we children all too often came in for head injuries because they were not wearing a helmet. I decided to stick with the same topic that I have been using throughout this class: helmet safety. My PICO(T) question is: In pediatric bicycle injuries, does the use of wearing a helmet compared to not wearing a helmet reduce the risk of a traumatic brain injury? The article that I chose to discuss is “Rethinking Bicycle Helmets as a Preventive Tool: A 4-year Review of Bicycle Injuries” by Joseph et al. (2014).

According to Campbell, “descriptive statistics are used to summarize the sample and, where applicable, estimate underlying population values” (2016, p.741). Descriptive statistics use demographic variables like age, gender, race, and religion. The descriptive statistics that were used in the article that I found pertaining to my PICO(T) question include age, gender, race, physiologic parameters such as systolic blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and Glasgow Coma Scale, and details regarding the bicycle accident like date, time, location and speed. Chamberlain College of Nursing (CCN) states, “Inferential statistical tests were developed to determine the probability that the findings from the sample in a study can be inferred to the population” (2017). The inferential statistics that were used in the article were t-tests and chi-squares. Chi-square tests are used to generalize from sample to population. They assess evidence for or against the population’s values using data from the sample to be able to calculate test statistics (Campbell, 2016, p.738). Joseph et al. assessed the differences between the two groups (helmeted and non-helmeted) utilizing the Students t-test for parametric variables, the Mann– Whitney U test for non-parametric variables, and the Chi-square test for categorical variables (2014). The multivariate regression analysis that assessed independent factors associated with intra-cranial head injuries had a p-value of <0.2. A p-value of <0.05 within the analysis was considered to be statistically significant. I found that age (p=0.01) and intoxication (p=0.03) were independently associated with intracranial hemorrhage. I interpret the results as that a helmet can and will help save your life. However, it was shown that whether wearing a helmet or not does not make a difference for intra-cranial hemorrhage; it does prevent other head injuries like skull fractures and scalp lacerations. This article found that non-helmeted riders were more likely to have skull fractures, facial fractures, and scalp lacerations versus helmeted riders. There was no difference in intra-cranial hemorrhage between helmeted and non-helmeted patients, needing further investigation. They recommend the promotion of injury prevention programs that are aimed at bicycle safety and riding and how they should and need to be enforced.

NR-505 Week 5 Discussion – Collaboration Café

Recommendations were made for the management and intervention of young bicycle riders who are under the influence of alcohol since the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was higher. Advocating for a redesign in helmets that are protective of external and internal head injuries (Joseph et al., 2014). Bike Safety is of the utmost importance; helmets save lives. Head injuries are more often than not preventable. It just takes some education regarding bicycle safety that could save a life.


Campbell, M. (2016). Getting to grips with statistics: Understanding variables. British Journal of Midwifery, 24(10), 738-741. Retrieved from

Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2017). NR 505- Week 5. Collecting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Quantitative Data. [Online lesson]. Downers Grove, IL: DeVry Education Group

Joseph, B., Pandit, V., Zangbar, B., Amman, M., Khalil, M., O’Keeffe, T., & … Rhee, P. (2014). Rethinking bicycle helmets as a preventive tool: a 4-year review of bicycle injuries. European Journal Of Trauma And Emergency Surgery, 40(6), 729-732. doi:10.1007/s00068-014-0459-7


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NR-505 Week 5 Discussion – Collaboration Café

Complete a PICO(T) search on a topic that pertains to your practice setting. Select one of the articles from your search. Identify the descriptive statistics. Then, describe the inferential tests that were used in the article (in other words, t-tests and chi-squares). Given the p-values related to the tests, how do you interpret the results? Are they statistically significant and clinically significant? What are the recommendations based on this paper? Share some alternate explanations (mediating or intervening variables) for the results of the study. If your chosen study does not contain inferential tests, then choose a different article that does contain inferential tests so you can participate in the discussion.

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