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NR 503 Week 2 Discussion-Epidemiological Methods

NR 503 Week 2 Discussion-Epidemiological Methods

For this discussion, I have chosen Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening. Rapid antigen/antibody testing is one way to screen for HIV. The CDC guidelines recommend that testing with an antigen/antibody immunoassay that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration which can detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 and HIV-1 24 antigen (Recommendation: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening: United States Preventive Services Taskforce, 2019). Human immunodeficiency virus affects more than one million people in the United States. The screening uses blood and body fluids for HIV antigens/antibodies. The screening age group targets ages 15-65, pregnant women, and anyone at high risk for getting the disease. This screening has been specifically tested in this age group and recommended as a first-line testing tool to get a quick result. The HIV screening is covered by insurance through the Affordable Care Act.

The predictive ability of rapid HIV is a large part of its popularity, along with its quick result time frame. According to the US Preventative Task Force, the sensitivity and specificity rates are between 99-100 percent; however, if a person is outside the testing window after being exposed to HIV, which is greater than 48 hours, then in that case, the test would not be accurate. Therefore, if the screening is done within the time frame after exposure, the predictive value is nearly 100 percent. I would integrate this tool into my advanced practice based on the information I have obtained because it is easy to use, and results are quick. We must stay on top of testing people with HIV to prevent the spread of the virus because if we lack the attention, spending it can be like spreading covid-19 without knowing. It is a cheap and easy screening method, allowing us to test more to prevent more spread. Providing education resources is vital, along with coping mechanisms, to those with diagnosed cases.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). HIV Testing. Retrieved from

HIV Testing. (2020, June 9). Retrieved January 3, 2022, from

Recommendation: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening: United States Preventive Services Taskforce. (2019, June 11). Retrieved January 3, 2022, from immunodeficiency-virus-HIV-infection-screening

The US Preventative Services Task Force. (2019). Screening for HIV infection. JAMA, E1-E11. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.6587.


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NR 503 Week 2 Discussion-Epidemiological Methods

Describe the diagnostic or screening tool selected, its purpose, and what age group it targets.

Has it been tested explicitly in this age group?

Next, discuss the predictive ability of the test. For instance, how do you know the test is reliable and valid?

What are the reliability and validity values?

What are the predictive values?

Is it sensitive to measure what has been developed to measure, for instance, HIV, depression in older adults, or Lyme disease?

Would you integrate this tool into your advanced practice based on the information you have read about the test? Why or why not?

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