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Landmark Cases in Education – From Segregation to Inclusion

Landmark Cases in Education – From Segregation to Inclusion

Brown v. Board

This case took place in 1954 to end educational segregation based on the student’s race. This was one of the cases that signaled the end of legalized racial segregation in educational institutions in the United States (Gargiulo & Bouck, 2019). The Supreme Court’s ruling significantly impacted the education system because it laid the foundation for ending racial segregation in educational institutions. It combated racial inequalities targeting minority students and continues to fight for equality in schools to date.

Larry P. v. Riles

The case took place between 1972 and 1979, intending to address the issue of class placement. African American students were not allowed to be placed in similar classes with students with mild intellectual disabilities because the act was believed to be culturally and racially biased (Gargiulo & Bouck, 2019). The case ruling found that IQ tests could not solely depend on assessing a child’s needs because they tend to discriminate against certain people and groups. The banning of the use of IQ tests in African-American schools played a vital role in the establishment of inclusive education today. Therefore, it was a critical case that would help educators determine which children require special attention.

Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education

This case aimed to shed light on the plight of students living with disabilities who had been placed in regular education. The 1989 case is significant because it provides a platform for how educational institutions can cater to the needs of students living with disabilities. Since private schools cannot provide the required resources, public schools need to invest in creating an environment that favors students with disabilities.

Least Restrictive and Full Inclusion

The least restrictive environment means children with special needs should be placed in the same classroom as other children as much as possible (Gargiulo & Bouck, 2019). However, educators treat each child as unique because of their varied needs. On the contrary, full inclusion in education means placement of students in general classrooms for all students with disabilities. Despite the severity of disability, every child should participate in regular education.


Gargiulo, R. M., & Bouck, E. C. (2019). Special education in contemporary society: An introduction to exceptionality. Sage Publications.


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Landmark Cases in Education - From Segregation to Inclusion

Landmark Cases in Education – From Segregation to Inclusion

This is for my discussion board I need you to read (chapter 2, p150-155) that I provided in a pdf below and for question number one I need you to choose 3 of the following cases listed below and explain their significance using the pdf I provided ONLY responses can be one or two paragraphs for each question. And then for question number 2 I need you to define least restrictive environment and full inclusion using the pdf I provided ONLY.

Answer the following TWO questions. Responses can be short,  one or two paragraphs for each question, as long as they answer the questions provided in a clear and concise manner.
1. Choose THREE OF the following cases and explain their significance (Chapter 2, p150-155).
1. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
2. Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
3. Larry P. v. Riles
4. Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley
5. Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education
2. Define the following terms:  least restrictive environment and  full inclusion.

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