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Intervention and Studies on Forgiveness-A Meta-Analysis

Intervention and Studies on Forgiveness-A Meta-Analysis

The article, Intervention Studies on Forgiveness: A Meta-Analysis by Baskin and Enright delves into a meta-analysis study concerning the conduction of the notion of forgiveness intervention in determining the efficaciousness it has when forgiveness is needed. Once, it was submitted that the intervention of forgiveness could be of assistance to persons who had previously been through traumatic emotional pain due to unfair treatment at some point in their lives (Baskin & Enright, 2004). Even before the notion of forgiveness was used as one of the counseling scientific studies, defining forgiveness was already in existence. It was understood by Baskin and Enright (2004) to be the “willful giving up of resentment in the face of another’s considerable injustice and responding with beneficence to the offender.” After examining nine other studies, the authors were in a position to classify forgiveness into three classes: i. decision-based studies; ii. Process-based studies with group format iii. Process-based studies that follow a single structure.

 By so doing, the authors wished to ascertain whether the interventions presented in diverse instances were largely efficacious in bolstering the aspect of forgiveness and whether they were of use in emotional health. After measuring forgiveness interventions, their findings suggested that counselors who employed the interventions that were decision-based did not find any imperative efficacy concerning forgiveness. Counselors who used interventions that were based on the process relayed increased effectiveness in the usage of forgiveness as a tool of intervention. It is worthwhile to note that in clinical sessions of treatment, forgiveness was seen to be effective. Following their analysis of the nine empirical research, the duo established that there would be no harm but gain should forgiveness be used when forgiveness counseling was adopted. Also, due to the fact that there was the unavailability of two independent pieces of research that could depict the criteria that they needed, they were hindered in conducting the last survey concerning the intervention of forgiveness. Therefore, they suggested that counseling hinged on forgiveness could be employed in diverse cases in the counseling profession.


It is vital to note that I found this article riveting in the sense that forgiveness, which has been seen as a trivial aspect in the social environment, has been appropriately researched from the scientific view and found to be largely efficacious. I could not help myself going through the article as my mind drifted to the instances where I had to forgive people who had previously offended me. Inasmuch as forgiveness is an option and a free will for persons who have difficulties forgiving people; this can be bolstered through counseling. It is imperative to note that every situation is different for every person, and therefore, it is essential that forgiveness interventions have to be different for people to effectuate forgiveness. For example, in the course of my life, several close people have hurt or offended me in many ways. It got to a point where I felt there was no way I could forgive them. I felt vengeful towards them.

Gradually, I became resentful, and it became difficult to interact with them, as I had to fake being comfortable in their presence or fight the urge to hit back at them in a way that could hurt them. It took me a long time to realize that I was doing damage to myself even more by doing so. At this point, I learned that through forgiveness, one does forgive the offenders and myself. After that, it dawned on me that I was able to enjoy life by exercising forgiveness because the gnawing discomfort exacerbated by the aspect of not forgiving had departed.


In the application of this aspect, a professional clinician employing forgiveness intervention could be used to provide assistance to the persons who are hurt emotionally and aid them in understanding through breaking down of their mental state in relation to forgiveness and the necessary measures they should take to ensure that they forgive their offenders. For instance, if patient X comes and relays to the counselor that they are depressed, worried, or even vengeful, the clinician must ask the duration of the time they felt low. X informs the clinician that from the moment he found out the identity of his father, he lapsed into a depression that has not subsided for almost a year now. X blames himself for the absence that had put him away from his father. He feels he is responsible for the current situation. After patiently listening to patient X speak out about the difficulties he is undergoing, the clinician asks several questions to ascertain the degree of the damage that the event has on the patient and whether he felt suicidal at any point. Afterward, the clinician takes the initiative to set up an appointment where they could work together to better the client’s health and peace of mind and help restore the family bond.

With this information from the article, person X can go through the healing process. Also, the counselor will be in a position to ascertain the level of resentment and pain present in the client and provide them with the relevant steps back to recovery. The steps discussed in the article will be productive in restoring the cognitive capabilities and developing empathy towards his father and himself.


Baskin, T. and Enright, R., 2004. Intervention Studies on Forgiveness: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), pp.79-90.


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Intervention and Studies on Forgiveness-A Meta-Analysis

Intervention and Studies on Forgiveness-A Meta-Analysis





You will write 2 Journal Article Reviews, which will be based on your choice of articles from the professional, peer-reviewed journal articles provided in Canvas under Journal Article Review Resources. No outside articles will be accepted. Each Journal Article Review must be 3–5+ double-spaced pages (not including the title and reference pages) and created in a Microsoft Word document. Use the following guidelines to create your paper. This second journal article review will follow the format and instructions of your first review, but you choose a different journal article to review for this assignment. INSTRUCTIONS1. Start your paper with a title page, correctly formatted per the current APA. Use the provided template, and the basic current APA components will be in place. Divide your paper into sections with the following Level One headings: Summary, Reflection, and Application as described on the template.2. Develop a summary of the main concepts from the article. Do not duplicate the article’s abstract. If the article describes a research study, include brief statements about the hypotheses, methods, results, discussion, and implications. If any test measures or statistical methods used are given in the article, do not provide detailed descriptions of these. Short, direct quotations from the article are acceptable, but avoid long quotes in a paper this size. This section is the foundation of your Journal Article Review (at least a third of your paper). Make sure you include the core points from the article, even if it means a longer section. Do not reference any additional articles in your summary.3. In approximately 1+ pages, reflect on the article using your own words. Appropriate comments for this part of the paper could include but are not limited to, your initial response to the article, comments regarding the study’s design or methodology (if any), insights you gained from reading the article, your reasons for being interested in this particular article, any other readings that you may plan to do based upon having read the article, and other thoughts you have that might further enhance the discussion of your article. Your subjective comments in this section must be clearly tied to the main points from the article, not peripheral ideas. Again, do not reference any other article.4. In your final section, in approximately 1+ page(s), write how you would apply the information you have learned from this article to a particular counseling setting. Make this setting one that would typically be seen in human services counseling—community services agencies, adoption agencies, volunteer counseling settings such as in churches, etc. Develop this section as if you are a pastor or clinician, and your parishioner or client has come to you with a problem—grief, depression, substance abuse, relationship problems, etc.— needing.

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