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Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning is the reasoning process that transitions from specific observations to broader generalizations. In contrast, deductive reasoning is the reasoning process that begins with general statements and ends with a logical conclusion (Singmann & Klauer, 2011). Deductive reasoning applies available knowledge, information, or facts to make a valid inference; inductive reasoning includes generalizing based on specific observations and facts. While deductive reasoning embraces a top-down approach, inductive reasoning embraces a bottom-up approach (Singmann & Klauer, 2011). In inductive reasoning, conclusions are usually based on probability, while the conclusions are certain in deductive reasoning. Deductive points of view can be invalid or valid, suggesting that the inference ought to be true if the evidence is true. However, the inductive points of view can be weak or strong, suggesting that the inference may be false even though the evidence is true.


A low-cost pet orphanage has been requesting people to adopt dogs due to the increasing population of dogs in the orphanage. All the ten people who have adopted their dogs from the orphanage have complained that they have fleas. This observation aligns with my theory that low-cost animal orphanages do not provide the highest quality of care to the animals due to limited resources. However, I can never prove that the 11th dog adopted from the orphanage will have fleas.

Conclusion Using Inductive Reasoning

The ten dogs may have fleas, but the 11th dog may not because the orphanage will improve sanitation following customer complaints. The 11th dog may also not have fleas because the dog may have been sourced from a different place and may also have been kept separate from the other ten dogs.

Proof That Solution is True Based on Deductive Reasoning

All dogs have fleas, but proper sanitation and the environment where the dog is being kept prevent flea infestation and keep the dogs clean. Thus, dog 11 will not have fleas as long as it is kept in a clean environment.


Singmann, H., & Klauer, K. C. (2011). Deductive and inductive conditional inferences: Two modes of reasoning. Thinking & Reasoning, 17(3), 247-281.


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Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Assessment Description
Explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. Create an example and use inductive reasoning to arrive at a general conclusion, and then prove your conclusion is true by using deductive reasoning.

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