Importance of Goal-Setting for Nutritional Clients.
The Importance of Goal-Setting for Nutritional Clients. The Various Types of Goals Nutrition Coaches Should Be Concerned with and The Seven Steps Involved in The Goal-Setting Process.
Goal setting can be defined as the process of identifying achievement that one would wish to accomplish at the end of an activity. For instance, in nutrition, the patient’s main objective would be weight loss, and hence, the goal will be a specific weight loss one intends to achieve. Goal setting is an essential factor in any field (Wakabayashi et al., 2021). For nutritional clients, goal setting enables the client to meet their expectations and even follow their progress. Besides, goal setting helps in preventing procrastination since one has goals to achieve in a specific duration. In addition, goal setting also promotes client-centred service as the clients are held accountable for their objectives.
There are various types of goals in nutrition that the nutritional coaches should be careful with. These goals include physical, behavioural, and health goals (Wakabayashi et al., 2021). The physical goals refer to the level of physical activity a client may want to achieve. Nutritional coaches encourage the clients to participate in physical activities for fitness. Besides, physical activity also plays a significant role in preventing or controlling obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. An example of a physical goal may be weight loss and calorie reduction through physical exercise. Health goals may involve the achievement of normal health indicators, for instance, in diabetic Mellitus patients. The nutritional coaches can advise the clients on the appropriate diet. Lastly is the behavioural goals. A person’s behaviour determines their nutritional outcome. An example of a behavioural goal is compliance with the nutritional coach’s advice.
Essentially, there are seven steps of goal setting. The goals include: First, determination of the desired goal and the ability to work towards the goal. Secondly is the creation of a SMART goal, which abbreviates the objectives to be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely (Wakabayashi et al., 2021). The third step is noting down the created goals followed by action plans. The fifth step is the establishment of a timeline for the achievement of the goals. The sixth step is implementing the goals, and lastly, the seventh is reevaluation and assessment of the progress.
The Glycemic Index (GI) and Its Impacts the Digestion of Carbohydrates Within the Human Body.
The glycemic index is an index used to rate the rate of different carbohydrates increasing the sugar levels in the blood. The index uses glucose as a reference food, and it has a score of 100. Carbohydrates are broken fast and have a high glycemic index, such as baked potatoes, among others (Vega-Lopez et al., 2018). These carbohydrates release glucose in the blood quickly. On the other hand, carbohydrates that are broken slowly release glucose at a slower rate and, hence, a low glycemic index. Such carbohydrates increase the digestion time and help with the feeling of satiety. Foods that may lower the glycemic index include fructose, fibres, protein, fat, and lactose.
The Three Macronutrients: Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat, Their Roles and The Recommended Dietary Allowances for Each.
Macronutrients can be defined as nutrients required in large amounts by the body. There are three macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (Oliphant et al., 2019). Carbohydrates are chains of sugars and include sugars, starches, and fibres. Average carbohydrates contain four calories in one gram. Carbohydrates are the primary energy source in the body and are in two forms: complex and simple. The recommended calorie level from carbohydrates is around 45-46% of daily calories. Proteins are the building blocks and are responsible for growth and tissue restoration. When digested, proteins form polypeptides and amino acids for ease of absorption. The USDA recommended calorie level from proteins is 10-35% of daily calories.
On the other hand, Fats are the densest source of energy in the body. Fats help with the absorption of vitamins and the energy stored in the body. One gram of fat contains nine calories and only 25-35% of daily calories are recommended. Fats are further classified into saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats are from animal sources, whereas unsaturated fats are from plants. In addition, there are trans fats from commercial manufacturing, which are very unhealthy since they increase the LDL cholesterols.
The Process of Converting Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Into Energy Within the Human Body.
Adenosine triphosphate is the primary source of energy in the body. Conversion of ATP to energy occurs through hydrolysis. The process involves the dephosphorylation of ATP in a process known as hydrolysis to form ADP (Meryat et al.,, 2019). The body is dependent on energy for various processes like muscle relaxation, contraction, and nerve signalling, among others—the conversion process yields around 7.3 kilocalories per molecule of ATP.
The Eleven Organ Systems Within the Human Body, Discussing the Various Components of Each and Their Function Within the Human Body
The eleven organ systems in the body include the circulatory system, which comprises the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The function of this system is blood circulation and oxygen and nutrient supply in the body (Zierle-Ghosh et al., 2020). Secondly, the lymphatic system is comprised of lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph glands, and ducts. The function of this system is for the transportation of lymph and plays a significant role in immunity. The respiratory system involves the lungs, trachea, and the respiratory tree. This system is essential for breathing and also the regulation of the body’s oxygen and pH. The integumentary system includes the skin, its appendages, and the nerves. The system is essential for temperature regulation and protection of inner organs. The immune system is broad and contains the organs essential for immune regulation, which are comprised of the spleen, adenoids, and bone marrow, among others. The reproductive system is necessary for reproduction and comprises the uterus, ovaries, and vagina in females and the penis and testis in males.
Additionally, the nervous system is the most complex and essential for many body processes, such as sensation (Zierle-Ghosh et al., 2020). The nervous system comprises the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. The musculoskeletal system includes the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones. The musculoskeletal is essential for movement and posture. The gastrointestinal system consists of the stomach, intestines, and liver. The system is necessary for food digestion, absorption, and excretion. The endocrine system comprises the glands in the body; its function is the regulation of metabolism in the body. Lastly is the urinary system, which is made up of kidneys, bladder, urethra, and ureters, and its function is water and electrolytes absorption and also excretion.
The Differences Between the Food Pyramid and MyPlate Tool, and Why the Latter is Preferred.
One of the essential differences between the food pyramid and the MyPlate tool is the number of servings. The food pyramid contained a breakdown of the food groups with their respective recommended serving sizes. On the contrary, the MyPlate tool deals with what one should fill their plates with (Schwartz et al., 2019). Essentially, the MyPlate tool did away with oils and fats and also did away with the serving recommendation. Besides, the MyPlate tool, unlike the pyramid, which was used as a standalone, is accompanied by a list of suggestions for preparing healthy food. The switch was made because the MyPlate tool seemed to address the drawbacks that were associated with the food pyramid. Furthermore, the MyPlate tool helps families approximate the sizes of their anticipated meals.
Meyrat, A., & Von Ballmoos, C. (2019). ATP synthesis at physiological nucleotide concentrations. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38564-0
Oliphant, K., & Allen-Vercoe, E. (2019). Macronutrient metabolism by the human gut microbiome: major fermentation by-products and their impact on host health. Microbiome, 7(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0704-8
Schwartz, J. L., & Vernarelli, J. A. (2019). Assessing the public’s comprehension of dietary guidelines: use of MyPyramid or MyPlate is associated with healthier diets among US adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 119(3), 482-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2018.09.012
Vega-López, S., Venn, B. J., & Slavin, J. L. (2018). Relevance of the glycemic index and glycemic load for body weight, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Nutrients, 10(10), 1361. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101361
Wakabayashi, H., Yoshimura, Y., Maeda, K., Fujiwara, D., Nishioka, S., & Nagano, A. (2021). Goal setting for nutrition and body weight in rehabilitation nutrition: a position paper by the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition (secondary publication). Journal of General and Family Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgf2.509
Zierle-Ghosh, A., & Jan, A. (2020). Physiology, body mass index (BMI). StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. https://europepmc.org/books/n/statpearls/article-18425/?extid=29083707&src=med
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* 6 SHORT QUESTION & ANSWER RESPONSES *
1) Discuss the importance of goal-setting for nutritional clients. Explain the various types of goals nutrition coaches should be concerned with, providing brief examples of each. Finally, discuss the seven steps involved in the goal-setting process.
2) Explain the Glycemic Index (GI) and how it impacts the digestion of carbohydrates within the human body. Your answer should include information regarding the different types of sugar, the breakdown of carbohydrates for energy, and the role of fibre.
3) Provide a brief description of the three macronutrients: carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Explain the role of each macronutrient and provide the recommended dietary allowances for each.
4) Describe the process of converting adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into energy within the human body.
5) Provide a brief description of each of the eleven organ systems within the human body, discussing the various components of each and their function within the human body.
6) Your new client is familiar with the Food Pyramid, the previous graphic representation of the Dietary Guidelines, but unfamiliar with the current MyPlate tool. Describe the differences between the two tools and why the switch was made.