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A research hypothesis is a statement that explains a prediction or expectation of a given phenomenon (Mauldin, 2020) that the researcher should prove to be true or false at the end of the research findings. A hypothesis guides the study’s course as the research confirms or rejects it. In most studies, a research hypothesis states a possible relationship between the independent and the dependent variables (Tendeiro & Kiers, 2019). Views are written in two forms: null and alternative. A null research hypothesis states no relationship between two variables, while an alternative theory states some statistical significance between two phenomena. The researcher tries to invalidate or reject the null hypothesis by showing the existence of a relationship between the study’s variables.

An ideal example of a null hypothesis is;

People who eat three meals a day live longer than those who skip at least one meal daily.

The alternative hypothesis will be;

People who eat three meals a day do not live longer than those who skip at least one meal a day.

The hypothesis guides the researcher to adopt scientific methodologies, thus setting the foundation for accurate findings and conclusions. A study also uses the idea to create assumptions about a given phenomenon. For instance, if the study’s null hypothesis links a dependent variable with the independent one, the null hypothesis will be instrumental in formulating the probabilities and strength of the bond between the two variables (Tendeiro & Kiers, 2019). An idea is also used to link the underlying theory and specific research questions. A research hypothesis is also instrumental in helping the researcher collect and analyze data and measure the reproach’s validity and reliability. It also provides proof of the research’s validity by describing the study in concrete terms rather than theoretically.


Mauldin, R. (2020). Foundations of Social Work Research (p. 111).

Tendeiro, J. N., & Kiers, H. A. (2019). A review of issues about null hypothesis Bayesian testing. Psychological methods, 24(6), 774.


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What is a hypothesis? How do you use it in a research study? Provide examples.

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