Need help with your Discussion

Get a timely done, PLAGIARISM-FREE paper
from our highly-qualified writers!


Human Behavior- Reality versus Perception

Human Behavior- Reality versus Perception

Human Behavior- Reality versus Perception

Differences between Perceived and Objective Realities

According to Youssef-Morgan & Noon (2017), perception refers to the process a person uses to bring some meaning to their world as they interpret the stimuli around them. In that case, therefore, perceived realities refer to a situation when a person is blind to misinformation and lies and chooses their perception as reality. On the other hand, objective reality is a situation where one is sure that something truly exists. Accordingly, while objective reality is based on the facts and what exists in reality, perception reality is based on what is not facts. Rummel (2002) writes that perception refers to the dynamic conflict between the attempts made by an outside world to impose actual things on people and the effort of people to transform this actuality into a self-centered perspective. For that reason, the perceived reality is then the confrontation between an external reality’s vector that is inwardly directed, thus compelling awareness, and an externally directed vector of psychological, cultural, and physiological transformation. The point at which these vectors balance each other, where they clash, is what people perceive. Our perception then negotiates what people believe is accurate decisions and how people can get through challenges and difficulties in their lives.

Factors Affecting One’s Perception of Reality and Rational Decision-Making

Attribution Theory

Kelly Harold coined the attribution theory in 1967 and explained that people find explanations for their own courses of action as well as those of others and the results that come from them (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). When one thinks that one’s own innate personal features influence a person’s behavior, then one attributes behavior to internal or dispositional factors. On the contrary, when one believes that a person’s behavior is caused by external factors beyond a person’s control, then one is attributing behavior to external factors or situational factors (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). For instance, if a new employee fails to deliver a crucial project on time, a manager will likely think that the employee is disorganized or lazy. When it comes to situational factors, if the manager were aware that the employee was facing computer challenges or had difficulty obtaining information from a different department, the manager might attribute the late submission of the assignment to outside factors.


Bias refers to a predisposition to errors (Chira, Adams & Thornton, 2008). Accordingly, this means that it is a propensity or prejudice to make decisions as already being influenced by an underlying belief. How people think can limit them in the process of decision-making. Biases disrupt and distort the objective contemplation of a matter through the introduction of influences into the process of decision-making that is distinct from the decision itself. For example, a team coach may refuse to include two African American students in the final competition of expert swimmers because of the belief that African Americans are not good at swimming.

Bounded Rationality

According to bounded rationality theory, the limited mental abilities of humans, together with outside factors over which they cannot control, prohibit them from making rational decisions (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). The decision-makers then satisfy their own decisions rather than maximize them. In this case, satisfice means that the decision-maker creates a sufficient acceptability level for the outcome of an issue and then screens optional solutions until they are satisfied or sufficient. For example, bounded rationality makes one state that they cannot do something because they are limited by factors like time constraints, imperfect information, or cognitive limitations. One may not buy a car immediately because they do not have enough money at that time or even the time to research cars in the market.

Cognitive Biases

A cognitive bias refers to the tendency to interpret information so that it confirms preconceptions, as one avoids interpretations that are contrary to previously held beliefs (Chira, Adams & Thornton, 2008). In other words, one deviates from rationality because of their cognitive system functionality. Cognitive biases make one irrational in how they judge, evaluate, search for, remember information, use and interpret information, and even make decisions.

Conjunction Fallacy

The conjunction fallacy is based on the fact that decision-makers make judgments on the probability of an event happening based partly on the level of detail in which the happenings are described (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). Youssef-Morgan & Noon (2017) give an example of Linda, who is 31 years old, bright, outspoken, and single. Her major is Philosophy, and she is passionate about matters relating to social justice and discrimination. If one has to choose if Linda is a teller at a bank or a teller and an active feminist movement actor, one would most probably select the second option. Essentially, this is because it entails two occurrences in conjunction. This bias finds the more specific option more representative of the situation than the general one and should be avoided in decision-making.

Primary and Recency Effect

The primary effect happens when a person tries to recall something from a long list; for instance, they remember the words that were written at the beginning and not in the middle (Duffy & Crawford, 2008). The primary effect helps a person recall information they see first rather than that seen later. For instance, a person may see a product on television and decide to buy it before the product is unavailable. The recency effect entails the ability of the brain to hold a maximum of seven items in the temporary memory. Consequently, this helps individuals decide on these items, excluding others on the list.

Selective Perceptions

People may selectively interpret the things they have seen based on their attitudes, experience, background, and interests (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). As a result, this will allow them to speed-read other people, but not without the risk of coming to an inaccurate picture. Thus, their decisions become impaired by the wrong perception.

Contrast Effects

The contrast effect happens when two items are judged compared to another instead of individually (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). When one compares items, perception changes, and one tends to judge or choose one over the other. For instance, extroverted people seem more sociable in a crowd of introverted people (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017).


Stereotyping refers to the tendency to assume that experiences, people, or objects in the same group share more features than they do (Youssef-Morgan & Noon, 2017). This tendency of assumption can shape the fundamental visual processing of people, predictably twisting how the human brain sees another person’s face. Honton (2017) finds that implicit stereotype gives a challenge to a person as the core cause and source of their actions and thought. In a study examining implicit stereotype bias regarding age groups, religion, and ethnicity, the results showed Whites as highest, followed by Asians, then Blacks and Hispanics (Hinton, 2017). Christianity was first, then Judaism, followed by Hinduism and Islam for religion. Such stereotyping can make a person prefer one religion to another.

Why A Leader Or A Manager Of An Organization Should Be Aware Of Bias

Every person has a different bias, which influences how one interacts with others and even makes decisions. In the case of leaders or managers, biases can manifest in their decisions and courses of action (Morgan & Noon, 2017). Managers make decisions regarding whom they should hire, products to sell, resources to allocate, and processes to implement mainly because of their perceptions (Morgan & Noon, 2017). Subsequently, this can send an impression that may make employees feel judged or discriminated against due to certain identities and traits, making them feel isolated from the organization. It is essential for employees to feel part of an organization to work effectively; otherwise, this would jeopardize the reputation and performance of the company or organization. When manager begins identifying their perceptions, beliefs, and biases, they start bringing more objectivity and consciousness into their decisions, leading to higher chances of making rational decisions.

Strategies to Increase Awareness of Potential Effectors of our Ability to Make Rational Decisions

In summary, there are several ways of increasing awareness of possible effects on people’s capacity to make rational choices grounded on their developed realities. One way is by gaining expertise and experience in the decision area. Accordingly, this can be done by enhancing education or getting feedback from one’s previous decisions (Morgan & Noon, 2017). Feedback would inform the decision-maker on the courses of action that make effective decisions and also help overcome negative biases and perceptions. The decision-maker can then practice skills such as transformational leadership with a few trusted associates to master that style, increase experience, and build their confidence. Another critical strategy is debiasing judgment. Essentially, this refers to the process of getting rid of cognitive biases in the process of decision-making (Morgan & Noon, 2017). Since cognitive biases are external to the decision-maker’s awareness of perception, this process would entail consciously using approaches that would make them aware of biases and how they influence decision-making accuracy. Individuals need to receive descriptions of the biases that are common, explanations for the biases’ causes, and an assurance that biased decision-making is common and it is possible to overcome it. Lastly, seeking an outside viewpoint would increase the awareness of potential effectors because sometimes people fail to see their own biases unless someone else identifies them.


Chira, I., Adams, M., & Thornton, B. (2008). Behavioral bias within the decision-making process.

Duffy, S., & Crawford, L. E. (2008). Primacy or recency effects in forming inductive categories. Memory & Cognition, 36(3), 567-577.

Hinton, P. (2017). Implicit stereotypes and the predictive brain: cognition and culture in “biased” person perception. Palgrave Communications, 3(1), 1-9.

Rummel, R. J. (2002). Understanding conflict and war: Vol. 1: The Dynamic Psychological Field. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.

Youssef-Morgan, C. & Noon, A. (2017). Industrial/Organizational psychology (2nd ed.). Bridgepoint Education.


We’ll write everything from scratch


Reality versus perception paper- Need 4 to 5 pages double-spaced. Properly cite page- must cite textbook and other scholarly resources. Instructions attached.

Human Behavior- Reality versus Perception

Human Behavior- Reality versus Perception

Must use in frequent citations. Attached is chapter 8.
Youssef-Morgan, C. & Noon, A. (2017). Industrial/Organizational psychology (2nd ed.). Bridgepoint Education.

Have a similar assignment? "Place an order for your assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you A results."

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Eminence Papers only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Eminence Papers are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Eminence Papers are known for the timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Eminence Papers, we have put in place a team of experts who answer all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.

Office Address: 2066 N Capitol Ave, San Jose, CA 95132, United States
UK Address: 2 Frederick Street, Kings Cross, London, United Kingdom, WC1X 0ND ©2023 All rights reserved. Terms of usePrivacy Policy Revision PolicyMoney Back Guarantee | Plagiarism Free Guarantee
We Can Write It for You! Enjoy 20% OFF on This Order. Use Code SAVE20

Stuck with your Assignment?

Enjoy 20% OFF Today
Use code SAVE20