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Gibbs Model of Reflection. The 6 stages

Gibbs Model of Reflection. The 6 stages

Gibbs Model of Reflection

The Gibbs model of reflection approach endeavors to provide you with the appropriate tools to comprehend the process of learning from experience and take advantage of it. This strategy is usually used to illustrate how people discover their thoughts and behaviors. It can also be used in many distinct situations including self-development, mentoring, or coaching.

Our article will give you tips to write a remarkable Gibbs model of reflection essay that will guarantee you a compelling homework paper for an A+ grade.

What is Gibb’s reflective Cycle?

The Gibbs Reflective Cycle entails management and self-reflection to assist people to comprehend the various experiences they encounter during particular activities and forming opinions.

In 1988 Graham Gibbs published his Learning from experience book and cited the Gibbs model of reflection first-ever. The famous sociologist and psychologist provide a detailed description of the approach and its associated stages practically to be understandable and for people to thrive in it.

Graham Gibbs’ action was planning to make use of various stages to define the circumstance and to have a grasp of the model. Gibbs believed that human experiences educated them and in case they didn’t think about improving in the future then they weren’t benefiting from their experiences. The reflective Cycle forms part of the significant learning and teaching methods that detail the situation to assist people to be reasonable, comprehend and consider how to improve next time.

Gibbs’ reflective cycle

It is the regular approach with an arrangement that focuses on regular experiences. Using this six-stage model will aid to recognize your strengths, development areas, and the actions you will take to boost your professional competence. It has the below 6 stages where every stage aids to capture and consider a particular learning experience;

1.    Description

This is the Gibbs Reflective Cycle’s first step and it is in this particular reflective practice that people define the circumstance or their situation’s experience.

Use these questions to understand the Gibbs model of reflection Description part’s situations;

  • What happened?
  • When and where did it occur?
  • Why you were there?
  • What action did you take?
  • What were the other peoples’ actions?
  • Who else was there?
  • What the situation’s outcome was?
  • What were your expectations?

2.    Feelings

The Gibbs Cycle’s second step is Feelings where people define their feelings and ideas and the impact it has on their situation’s experiences;

Apply these questions while considering the Gibbs model of reflection Feeling part situations;

  • How did you feel before the situation?
  • How did you feel in the course of the situation?
  • What are your thoughts on other people’s feelings during the situation?
  • What were your feelings after the situation?
  • How do you perceive this situation presently?
  • What are your thoughts on other people’s feelings concerning the situation presently?

3.    Evaluation

The Gibbs Cycle’s third step is Evaluation where people analyze their experience either positively or even negatively regarding the situation.

Use these questions while considering the Gibbs model of reflection Evaluation part’s situations;

  • What was good concerning the circumstance?
  • What was bad concerning the situation?
  • What ended well in the situation?
  • What didn’t end well in the situation?
  • What was your positive or negative contribution to the situation?
  • What are other peoples’ positive or negative contributions to the situation?

4.    Analysis

The Gibbs Cycle’s fourth step is Analysis where people feel, think, and attempt to be conscious of the issue and comprehend what occurred. At this step, you learn what succeeded and aided the state or the misstep causes.

Use these questions while considering the Gibbs model of reflection Analysis part’s situations;

  • Why were things successful in the situation?
  • Why things were unsuccessful in the situation?
  • How do you perceive the situation?
  • What understanding can aid you comprehend the situation?
  • What people’s understanding can aid to comprehend the situation?

5.    Conclusion

The Gibbs Cycle’s fifth step is the Conclusion where people consider their lessons and what they would have done differently.

Apply these questions while considering the Gibbs model of reflection Conclusion stage’s situations;

  • What are your lessons from the situation?
  • How will the situation impact everyone positively?
  • What skills are required to deal with this form of situation exceptionally at a future date?
  • What else might you’ve done to improve this experience?

6.    Action Plan

The Gibbs Cycle’s sixth step is the Action plan where people define how they can handle future situations and the improvement at other times.

Apply these questions while considering the Gibbs model of reflection Action plan’s situations stage;

  • If you were to deal with a similar situation what will be your action plan and what can you do alternately?
  • How will you develop the needed skills that you will require to deal with the same situations?
  • How will you ensure that your action will be different another time in the same situation?

Reflective Models in Nursing Gibbs

The following are examples of Gibbs model of reflection in nursing that will boost your ideas in the course of your nursing career;

1.    ERA Cycle

The ERA cycle is amongst the simplest reflection models and includes only 3 stages namely;

  • Experience
  • Reflection
  • Action

This cycle demonstrates that you’ll commence an experience, for example, something you have experienced before or anything new to you. This experience may either be positive or even negative and can be work-related or anything else.

2.    Driscoll’s “What?” Model

The other easy model was established by Driscoll. He based the model on the three “What’s on?” fundamental questions Terry Borton asked in 1970;

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?

By considering these 3 simple questions you can start to analyze and profit from your experiences

3.    Experiential Learning Theory of Kolb

Kolb’s model accelerates things. Depending on people learning theories, this model focuses on developing an understanding of concepts through real experiences and involves 4 key stages namely;

  • Concrete experience
  • Reflective observation
  • Abstract conceptualization
  • Active experimentation

4.    Gibbs Reflective Cycle

The last model perfects the other 3 and adds to the stages.  The model is among the complex reflection models but it might be that you will find the process multiple stages to lead you encouraging. Gibb’s cycle includes 6 stages namely;

  • Description
  • Feelings
  • Evaluation
  • Analysis
  • Conclusion
  • Action plan

Difference between Gibb’s and John’s reflective models

The Gibbs model of reflection emphasizes more on the peoples’ experiences or the feelings of everybody engaged in the particular experience. Whereas, Johns’ model of reflection concentrates more on both the external and internal factors or even the circumstantial factors and the knowledge component application in your experience.

The Gibbs model of reflection commences with the incident of consideration, which is the event’s description as it happened with a focus on the event’s participants. On contrary the Johns’ model of reflection likewise begins with the event recapping, which is not the event sequence mere description and the participant’s role.

The third stage of the Gibbs model of reflection includes forming an opinion about the experience and it relates to the experience’s good aspects and the experience’s bad aspects. On the contrary, Johns’ Model of reflection’s third step includes both the external and internal factors that participated in the making of decisions in the course of the experience.

The fourth stage of the Gibbs model of reflection involves evaluating the experience by interpreting it and analyzing all the components. Whereas, Johns’ model of reflection fourth stage includes considering how you could have managed the experience better by taking into consideration the numerous outcomes available options.

The fifth step of the Gibbs model of reflection includes forming an opinion depending on the evaluation of all data received through all the other model stages. The judgment handles deciding on actions that you would put into practice differently for better experience outcomes. Johns’ Model of reflection fifth stage is the model’s final phase and is the model’s learning phase, wherein the experience’s feelings are viewed taking into account the previous stages’ all information. John’s model involves trying to comprehend the knowledge development of the individual via the process of reflection.

The sixth stage of the Gibbs model includes the action plan’s creation to deal with the same experience at a future date. Whereas, John’s model of reflection doesn’t have the 6th stage and disagrees with the Gibbs model of reflection concerning this aspect because it ends with the recognition of knowledge increase that the person has via the experience


The Gibbs model of reflection supposedly is an excellent way to consider your past and realize how to handle challenging situations without alarm or anxiety. It formed into an essential instructional technique to assist learners in perceiving every task they finished. Nowadays, nursing students apply this approach to understand numerous health scenarios that are related to patients.

Our  case study writing services will guarantee you a quality paper that will awe your professors. To have a better grasp of the model use our Gibbs model of reflection examples that are associated with nursing backgrounds and you will rest assured of success in your academic journey.

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