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Formation of Urine – Urinary System Disorder (Kidney Stones)

Formation of Urine – Urinary System Disorder (Kidney Stones)

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, arise due to a disruption in the urinary system’s regular activities, which are strongly tied to the architecture and physiology (A&P) of the kidneys. The kidneys filter waste products and excess chemicals from the blood to generate urine, which then flows down the ureters to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination in the usual A&P of the urinary system (Baranski). Urine is normally composed of water, electrolytes, and different waste materials. The pathophysiology of kidney stones occurs when the concentrations of specific components in the urine, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, are out of equilibrium.

Kidney stones interfere with the regular operation of the urinary system, especially the structures within the kidneys. Kidney stone forms clog in the renal tubules or the renal pelvis (see fig. 1.), obstructing urine flow from the kidneys to the bladder and causing pain, irritation, and probable kidney tissue damage (O’Callaghan). The obstruction may also obstruct normal filtration and concentration processes in the nephrons, interfering with the kidneys’ vital role in maintaining electrolyte balance, eliminating waste products, and regulating blood pressure.

Fig. 1. Kidney with Kidney Stones

Source: “Kidney Stones – NIDDK.” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 22 May 2019,

The symptoms of kidney stones vary based on their size, location, and whether they induce a urinary tract obstruction. Intense, abrupt, and painful flank or lower back pain that may spread to the lower abdomen and groin are common symptoms of kidney stones (Walker et al.). This pain is frequently accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and the presence of blood in the urine (hematuria). Individuals with kidney stones may have frequent and urgent urination, as well as a continuous need to urinate, even if their bladder is empty (Thongprayoon et al.). In certain circumstances, the urine may be murky or foul-smelling, and a prolonged low-grade fever may indicate an infection related to the obstruction. Additional symptoms may include discomfort while urinating, difficulty passing urine, and the sensation of incomplete emptying of the bladder.

Works Cited

“Kidney Stones – NIDDK.” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 22 May 2019,

Baranski, Andrzej. Kidney Transplantation: Step-by-Step Surgical Techniques. Springer Nature, 2023.

O’Callaghan, Chris. “Renal Disease; Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders.” CRC Press EBooks, 17 May 2022, pp. 277–330, Accessed 2 Nov. 2023.

Thongprayoon, Charat, et al. “Determining the True Burden of Kidney Stone Disease.” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 12, 4 Aug. 2020, pp. 736–746,

Walker, Dyvon, et al. “Nontraumatic Urologic Emergencies.” Springer EBooks, 1 Jan. 2023, pp. 1295–1305, Accessed 2 Nov. 2023.


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Formation of Urine - Urinary System Disorder

Formation of Urine – Urinary System Disorder

Select a urinary system disorder (only 2 students may select the same topic so be sure to check all posted discussions).
Thoroughly discuss the pathology and relate to the normal A & P
What isn’t working?
What structure is affected?
What are the signs and symptoms?
Be creative with your post, use pictures, graphs or videos to explain (this does not replace the writing requirements)
Respond to another student and compare or contrast the topic you chose to another student’s topic.

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