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Factors That Affect the Population Size

Factors That Affect the Population Size

Fertility Rate

Fertility is one of the factors that affect population growth. According to the United Nations Population Division, the fertility rate drops consistently. During the 20th century, each woman could have five children, and 2.5 children in the 21st century. It is expected that this rate will drop further to 2.1 children (Pew Research Center, 2015). As the pace of fertility drops, the population growth rate reduces as well. Fertility rates are also classified based on religion, which leads to expectations of sharp increases among certain groups.

Source: (Pew Research Center, 2015)

Based on the figure above, Muslims are expected to grow in numbers at a higher rate than other religious groups. Buddhists are expected to have the most minor population increase. However, fertility rates fluctuate significantly. This means that Muslims, Christians, Hindus, and Jews may experience a drop in fertility rates by 2050. These rates also vary by region, with Sub-Saharan Africa having the highest rate (4.8) (Pew Research Center, 2015).

Life Expectancy

This is the estimated life span of a newborn, which has experienced a significant increase globally (CDC, 2021). According to the UN, the world’s life expectancy increased to 69 years from 48 years. This rise is expected to continue over the years. The factors that lead to a higher life expectancy include improved diets, better healthcare access, better hygiene, and rapid response to infectious diseases. The elements do not occur uniformly around the globe. This means that different continents have a varying life expectancy. North America’s life expectancy is 79 years, Europe’s is 77 years, the Caribbean and Latin America’s is 75 years. North Africa and the Middle East have a life expectancy of 72 years, Asia Pacific’s is 70 years, while Sub-Saharan Africa’s is 55 years. The average life expectancy by 2050 is expected to reach 76 years around the globe (Pew Research Center, 2015). Citizens in regions that have a higher life expectancy are expected to live longer.


CDC. (2021). Life Expectancy. Retrieved from National Center for Health Statistics:

Pew Research Center. (2015). Total Fertility Rates by Region and Religion, 2010-2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from


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Factors That Affect the Population Size

Factors That Affect the Population Size

The growth rate equation is (birth rate + immigration)-(death rate + emigration). Provide at least two factors that affect the population size based on the equation above, and explain how these factors impact the size of the population.

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