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Early Education Funding

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Comparison and contrast of the phases of database design

Out of the three phases of a database, each database design bears its unique roles and responsibilities. Together, they are interrelated in such a way that the primary database informs the following in various ways. For instance, the first database design that should be considered in implementing a design is the conceptual database design. This database design entails the development of a conceptual data model of the system to be modeled (Connolly & Begg, 2005). Therefore, this model is developed with the aid of information extracted from the users’ specification template. The conceptual phase is then followed by the logical database design, which involves the development of a logical data model of the system to be modeled (Connolly & Begg, 2005). Lastly, the physical database involves the designer deciding how the database should be implemented.

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There are some differences between these three database designs. For instance, while the conceptual database design does not incorporate any physical element, the local model is developed after learning the DBMS structure, which is a physical element. The DBMS may be relational, network, or object-oriented. Also, the physical model entails the physical attributes of the database as it entails identifying the target DBMS system (Connolly & Begg, 2005). The other difference is that while the conceptual model is tested against users’ specifications, the logical model uses a technique identified as normalization in the testing of the accuracy of the model.

The bottom-up and top-down design approaches

The bottom-up design technique contains fundamental attributes that represent relationships between entities. An example of a process that utilizes the bottom-up approach is the normalization process. This is because the process entails the identification of required characteristics that are subsequently aggregated into normalized relations anchored on functional dependencies (Kung et al., 2013). On the other hand, the top-down measure is considered for the design of compound databases. The approach starts by designing a few high-level entities and relationships, followed by successful readjustment of the entities as one moves to lower levels of the database system. Despite this variation, the bottom-up design approach is essential in developing simple databases with a few attributes (Kung et al., 2013). This is because the approach necessitates easy identification of functional dependencies between the various dependencies.


Connolly, T. M., & Begg, C. E. (2005). Database systems: a practical approach to design, implementation, and management. Pearson Education.

Kung, H. J., Kung, L., & Gardiner, A. (2013). Comparing top-down with bottom-up approaches: Teaching data modeling. Information Systems Education Journal11(1), 14.


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*A reporter from the local newspaper wants to interview you about why taxpayers should vote for candidates who will increase funding for childcare, Head Start, and state preschool programs. What are the benefits of high-quality preschool to children?

Early Education Funding

Early Education Funding

How might parents benefit from increased support for childcare and early education? How does the larger society benefit from high-quality preschools for children from low-income families? Why is a focus on birth to age 8 valuable? Just 140 words only. In your own words!
Book: Revel Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education, 4e by Sue Bredekamp

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