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DNA is the hereditary material present in human beings. It contains genetic instructions for human beings. A DNA molecule has two double helix-shaped strands (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). Each stand has a backbone of alternating deoxyribose and phosphate groups (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). DNA has four bases that attach to deoxyribose. They are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The two strands in the double helix are held together by cytosine-guanine bonds and adenine-thymine bonds (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017).

Processes Description

DNA replication is the duplication of DNA material. The first step is unzipping the double helix structure and separating the two strands to create a replication fork (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The leading is oriented in the three-prime to five-prime direction, while the lagging strand is introduced in the five-prime to three-excellent order (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). A primer binds to the leading strand, allowing the DNA polymerase enzyme to add a new complementary nucleotide, resulting in DNA duplication (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017).

DNA transcription is when an RNA polymerase rewrites the genetic information within the DNA into an mRNA (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). It is divided into three processes. Initiation, elongation, and termination. In initiation, the RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA and recognizes promoter sequences (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). In addition, transcription factors bind to the promoter sequence. These factors control the transcription rate (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). After wrapping, the RNA polymerase unwinds a double helix portion and exposes bases on the complementary strands (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The template strand is read in the three-prime to five-prime direction in elongation, providing a new RNA molecule template (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The RNA polymerase then utilizes incoming nucleotides to synthesize an mRNA (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The final step is termination. Elongation will continue until the RNA polymerase encounters a stop sequence (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). Transcription will stop, and a new DNA template will be released.

Translation involves decoding a genetic code within an mRNA to produce a sequence of amino acids (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The three steps of translation are initiation, elongation, and termination. The first step in initiation is recognition of the start codon. The 40s ribosomal subunit binds to the five prime caps of the mRNA, followed by the 60s ribosomal subunit (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). This forms the initiation complex. In elongation, the methionine-tRNA binds to the P-site, while the aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the A-site (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). The methionine will move to the A-site, bonding to a new amino acid, while the tRNA molecule in the P-site will move out of the ribosome. The ribosome then translocates to the next codon, continuing the cycle (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017).

Gene Probes, Profiling, and Mapping

I want to use gene profiling and mapping technologies to know future genetic diseases. It will prepare me psychologically and decide whether I want to have children with genetic disorders. It will also allow me to seek early treatment. Genetic testing provides information on genetic conditions, which can direct an individual toward prevention and monitoring and inform their decisions to have children (MedlinePlus, 2021). The limitations associated with genetic testing may be genetic discrimination in workplaces and psychological stress for individuals who discover they have genetic diseases (MedlinePlus, 2021). I can practice as a genetic nurse who helps individuals at risk of genetic disorders to achieve and maintain health. Genetic nurses can perform risk assessments, provide genetics education, and conduct research.


Mader, S., & Windelspecht, M. (2017). Human biology. McGraw-Hill Education.

MedlinePlus. (2021). What are the risks and limitations of genetic testing?: MedlinePlus genetics. MedlinePlus – Health Information from the National Library of Medicine.

MedlinePlus. (2021). What are the benefits of genetic testing?: MedlinePlus genetics. MedlinePlus – Health Information from the National Library of Medicine.


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Describe the DNA

Define and describe briefly the following processes:

– DNA replication

– Transcription

– Translation

If gene probes, profiling, and mapping could make it possible for you to know of future genetic diseases in you or one of your children

Discuss whether you wish to use this technology to find out.

Explain the risks and benefits if these technologies were used to gather information on you or your children.
Include how genetic technology can impact your future profession as a Nurse.

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