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Discussion – Endometriosis

Discussion – Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammation of the uterus, causing the endometrial tissue to fall outside the uterus and leading to pelvic pain and risk for infertility (Chapron et al., 2019).


The actual causes of endometriosis remain uncertain. However, the development of the condition is linked to hormonal, neurological, and immunological factors that mostly contribute to the development of the symptoms of endometriosis (Saunders & Horne, 2021). These underlying factors are believed to interact with various aspects of the individual’s internal and external environment to influence the development of endometriosis.


Endometriosis is classified as a common gynecological condition. It is currently estimated to affect around 10 percent, roughly around 190 million of the women at their reproductive age (World Health Organization, 2023). Women at their early reproductive age are at an increased risk of developing the condition compared to other age groups. Regardless, endometriosis is a syndrome that can affect women of any age.


Endometriosis lesions can occur spontaneously in menstruating species such as humans (Saunders & Horne, 2021). Due to the fluctuations in hormones across the menstrual cycle, inflammation occurs in the endometrial tissue. The inflammation causes the development of scar tissue, which can then lead to the growth of endometrial tissue and fall outside of the uterus (Saunders & Horne, 2021).

Clinical Manifestations

Endometriosis is commonly manifested in chronic pelvic pain (cyclical and non-cyclical), pain during sexual intercourse, and menstruation periods (Saunders & Horne, 2021). Other notable symptoms of the condition are painful defecation and urination, nausea, depression, and issues with getting pregnant.


Endometriosis can be diagnosed using diagnostic imaging technologies such as transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Chapron et al., 2019). The work-up for endometriosis also considers the patient’s medical and family history regarding the condition. Diagnosis can also include physical examinations of the uterus and pelvis.

Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Management

Endometriosis can be managed using either non-pharmacological and pharmacological management methods or a combination of both. The non-pharmacological methods of managing endometriosis involve changes in the patient’s lifestyle, including eating habits and activity levels. The patient can also opt for physical therapy to improve the condition’s outcomes.

Pharmacological options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics such as ibuprofen and naproxen (World Health Organization, 2023). Other hormonal regulation methods include combined oral contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, and aromatase inhibitors (Saunders & Horne, 2021). Surgery also remains an option for managing endometriosis.

Education and Follow-up

Since endometriosis is majorly unpreventable, education involving knowledge of the condition, the need for early and regular check-ups, and the need for treatment are necessary to prevent complicated outcomes. After treatment, it is important to follow up on the patients to ensure the treatment is successful, as well as provide support throughout the treatment period. Patients should be provided with information about the condition, its potential impact on fertility, and available interventions.


Endometriosis is a significant gynecological syndrome with unknown etiology. Education, early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up are required to prevent complications, pain, and infertility.


Chapron, C., Marcellin, L., Borghese, B., & Santulli, P. (2019). Rethinking mechanisms, diagnosis and management of endometriosis. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2019 15:11, 15(11), 666–682.

Saunders, P. T. K., & Horne, A. W. (2021). Endometriosis: Etiology, pathobiology, and therapeutic prospects. Cell, 184(11), 2807–2824.

World Health Organization. (2023). Endometriosis. WHO.


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Discussion - Endometriosis

Discussion – Endometriosis

Discuss Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, Work-up, Nonpharmacological and Pharmacological management Education,and Follow-up for the diagnosis of Endomeotrosis . 500 words

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