Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child
Physical assessment is essential in planning and providing family and patient-centered care. Child development assessment entails obtaining primary data about the growth and development of a pediatric patient. The different aspects of the collected data include language, cognitive function, motor function, and social development. When obtaining data, progress is expected to be noted in all the areas being assessed. Child development assessment is also essential as it may help to identify children with special needs (Green et al., 2020). It is, therefore, necessary to know a child’s needs according to their stage of development. Everyone has different requirements for age, gender, and developmental stage. This paper explores the needs of school-aged children between the ages of 5 and 12.
Physical assessment among school-aged children
Physical assessment for school-going children differs from that of infants and toddlers. The school-going child can appreciate and understand reality and differentiate it from fantasy. This means that school-going children can think logically and appreciate that their actions have consequences. At the age of 5 to 12, a child is eager to learn new things. The children in this age group are dynamic, and according to theorist Erik Erikson, this is referred to as the ‘stage of industry.’
The physical assessment of a child in the age group 5 to 12 should be done in the presence of a parent. It is essential to establish whether the child wants their parent around during the assessment since children at this age tend to feel mature. The child can accurately describe their illness, which is why they should be interviewed. The parent can be present to add any information or corroborate the information provided by the child. When performing the physical assessment, the child should only be asked questions they can answer. These questions should revolve around their social life, friends, and school performance.
It is also essential to understand that children aged 5 to 12 are conscious about their bodies. Their privacy is, therefore, essential. Gowns should be provided and some privacy given to them as they change into these gowns. Every step of the physical examination should be explained in an age-specific language. A head-to-toe examination method should be employed.
A Case Example
Ronn is a 10-year-old boy. A child at this age can use language appropriately. His cognitive development is also heightened as he can use his imagination to a great extent. His memory is intact. Ronn also has a sense of pride and accomplishment. His participation in school activities, sports, work, and social activities portrays this. His motor development is also appropriate for his age as he participates in gymnastics. Ronn likes playing video games and competing with his other agemates. He gets along well with his peers and doesn’t feel inferior to them at all. Ronn also has a sense of morality and understands and has a good relationship with his parents. He understands all the rules given to him by his parents and accepts them as he knows that this is necessary to foster a positive relationship with them. Ronn also displays a sense of morality as he can distinguish between what’s right and wrong. He, for example, understands that it is wrong to steal.
Applying development theories in assessment
According to Piaget’s development theory, Ronn can be assessed using the preoperational and concrete operational stages of development. Children aged 5 to 12 can use language and imagination (Houdé, 2020). When conducting a developmental assessment of Ronn, asking his parents about his overall mental abilities is essential. This is necessary as the parent is better positioned to observe any changes and can note any regression in Ronn’s mental capabilities. Also, when performing the assessment, the process should be explained using logical language and imagination to ensure the child understands the significance of the assessment. This is because a child at this stage has developed logical thought processes. The assessment can be performed using the head-to-toe method to ensure that aspects such as hearing and vision are assessed. A rapport needs to be created to obtain adequate cooperation from the child. This can be achieved by asking general questions about school, friends, and the child’s likes and dislikes. During the assessment, the child should feel in charge of the process. After every step, this can be achieved by asking the child what they want to do next. The child needs to use his imagination to feel in control.
According to Erikson’s development theory, Ronn can be assessed using the industry versus inferiority stage. Children aged 5 to 12 understand how things function. At this stage, children also start to compare themselves with their peers (Ardelt et al., 2018). At this stage, a child can develop an inferiority complex if they feel like they don’t measure up to their peers. Ronn doesn’t have an inferiority complex and of pride and accomplishment. This can be seen in his participation in social activities and sports.
According to Kohlberg’s theory, people vary considerably in moral reasoning (Fang et al., 2017). Ronn displays pre-conventional moral reasoning and understands that it is wrong to steal from others. He appreciates that people should earn to give things.
Ardelt, M., Gerlach, K. R., & Vaillant, G. E. (2018). Early and Midlife Predictors of Wisdom and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age. The Journal of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, 73(8), 1514–1525. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gby017
Fang, Z., Jung, W. H., Korczykowski, M., Luo, L., Prehn, K., Xu, S., Detre, J. A., Kable, J. W., Robertson, D. C., & Rao, H. (2017). Post-conventional moral reasoning is associated with increased ventral striatal activity at rest and during tasks. Scientific reports, 7(1), 7105. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07115-w
Green, E. M., Stroud, L., Marx, C., & Cronje, J. (2020). Child development assessment: Practitioner input in the revision for Griffiths III. Child: care, health and development, 46(6), 682–691. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12796
Houdé O. (2020). Ethical views and considerations. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 173, 15–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64150-2.00003-4
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The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:
Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the child’s age and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies to gain cooperation, and potential findings.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines in the APA Style Guide in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric before beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
The school-age child I want to discuss is 9 Year-old. Please use the theory of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. For this age, the stage is the Conventional stage. Use the attached rubric guideline for this paper.
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