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Chain of Infection

Chain of Infection

Infectious diseases occur due to interactions between the microbial agent, the host, and the environment. Transmission of infection happens when the microorganism leaves its host or reservoir through an exit portal; it is then transported in different ways and enters through the entry portal, resulting in infection (van Deventer & Hochberg, 2017). The reservoir is where the microorganisms live and reproduce (van Deventer & Hochberg, 2017). Examples of pools include animals or humans. The exit portal is the path by which the microorganism leaves its hosts. This portal corresponds to the site where the organism is located (van Deventer & Hochberg, 2017).

Modes of transmission involve transmitting the microorganism from the natural reservoir to the susceptible. There are different modes of communication for microorganisms. They can be classified into direct or indirect contact. Direct contact happens through kissing or sexual intercourse (van Deventer & Hochberg, 2017). An example is gonorrhea, which is transmitted through sexual communication, while fungal infections may be transmitted through skin-skin communication.

On the other hand, indirect transmission happens when infectious microorganisms are carried by dust suspended in the air (van Deventer & Hochberg, 2017). The entry portal is how the organism enters the host. The entry portal must provide access to tissues for pathogen multiplication (van Deventer & Hochberg, 2017). Entry portals include the skin and blood. The host is the individual infected by the microorganisms. Factors that lead to host susceptibility include gastric acidity and immunosuppression.

Even though microorganisms have different hosts, reservoirs, and entry and exit points, they all follow the same course of infection. For an infection to occur, there must be a reservoir, mode of transmission, and exit and entry points. The pools for malaria are humans and mosquitoes, and the transmission mode is through blood (Venugopal et al., 2020).


van Seventer, J. M., & Hochberg, N. S. (2017). Principles of infectious diseases: Transmission, diagnosis, prevention, and control. International Encyclopedia of Public Health, 22-39.

Venugopal, K., Hentzschel, F., Valkiūnas, G., & Marti, M. (2020). Plasmodium asexual growth and sexual development in the hematopoietic niche of the host. Nature Reviews Microbiology18(3), 177-189.


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Chain of Infection

Chain of Infection

Describe the course of infection from contact with the pathogen to its exit from the host. **

Include your opinion on whether or not all Infections travel the same course.
Provide an example to substantiate your opinion.

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