Cellular Biology and Case Study Discussion
Cell morphology is the structure, form, size, and shape of cells that can be applied to define the functional abilities of human or bacterial cells (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). Cells are small functional units that can be hypothesized to contain power plants, transport systems, and factories. They function independently, generate energy, and self-replicate (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). It is considered the smallest unit of life. Cells combine to form tissues, which further come together to form organs. The organs combine to form an organ system that maintains homeostasis and keeps the organism alive.
Inside the cell, there are different organelles with different structures and functions. The nucleus is considered to be the headquarters of any cell type. Normally, each cell has one nucleus, but others have two nuclei, such as skeletal muscle cells. The nucleus contains the organism’s DNA material (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). It directs the cell to divide, grow or die. It is separated from the other cell parts by an envelope called the nuclear membrane (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017). Nuclear pores within this envelope allow the passage of ions and small molecules through diffusion, while larger molecules require carrier proteins and active transport to pass the nuclear pores. The plasma membrane separates individual cells from their neighbors. It contains phospholipids, which control the passage of substances in and out of the cell (Mader & Windelspecht, 2017).
Retinoblastoma occurs due to genetic mutations in the retina. This condition commonly occurs in individuals below five years (Gu et al., 2021). These genetic mutations cause the cells in the retina to continue growing and multiplying, resulting in the accumulation of a mass of cells (Gu et al., 2021). The tumor cells can further invade the other parts of the eye and adjacent structures. The symptoms of retinoblastoma include white pupils, swelling, redness, and crossed eyes (Gu et al., 2021). It can be diagnosed with bone marrow biopsy, spinal tap, ultrasound, and magnetic imaging resonance (Gu et al., 2021). The treatment modalities include radiation, laser therapy, cryotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy (Gu et al., 2021).
Gu, X., Xie, M., Jia, R., & Ge, S. (2021). Publication trends of research on retinoblastoma during 2001–2021: A 20-Year bibliometric analysis. Frontiers in Medicine, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.675703
Mader, S., & Windelspecht, M. (2017). Human biology (15th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
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Part 1: Discuss the Morphology of cells and the factor it plays in general function and structure. Also, choose a condition from the following case studies (Week 1 Case Study Details). You may work in small groups of up to 3 students if desired.
Part 2: Select two different students/topics and discuss the difference between various cells and the role these cells play in specific disease processes.
Length: A minimum of 250 words, not including references
Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA from within the last 5 years
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