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Case Study and Discussion – Patient with Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia

Case Study and Discussion – Patient with Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia

A 40-year-old has an endometrial biopsy report: benign endometrial hyperplasia.


Benign endometrial hyperplasia is a pathological condition characterized by the abnormal proliferation of cells in the uterus lining, known as the endometrium. This condition typically occurs due to an imbalance in the hormonal regulation of the endometrial tissue (Singh & Puckett, 2020). It is commonly seen in women of reproductive age, but it can also affect women who have reached menopause.

The primary underlying factor in benign endometrial hyperplasia is an excess of estrogen relative to progesterone. Estrogen stimulates the growth and proliferation of endometrial cells, while progesterone counterbalances this effect by promoting the differentiation of these cells and inhibiting their excessive growth (Singh & Puckett, 2020). When insufficient progesterone or an excess of estrogen, the endometrial cells can proliferate excessively, leading to hyperplasia.

Implicated Cells and Comparison of Atrophy vs. Hyperplasia

In benign endometrial hyperplasia, the cells implicated are the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. These cells are responsible for forming the uterus lining and its supportive tissue (Singh & Puckett, 2020).

Comparison of Atrophy and Hyperplasia

Atrophy refers to the shrinkage or reduction in the size of cells or tissues due to a decrease in the number or size of their constituent cells. In contrast, hyperplasia involves an increase in the number of cells in a tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected organ or tissue (Singh & Puckett, 2020). Furthermore, atrophy often results from aging, disuse, or reduced blood supply, leading to decreased tissue function. Hyperplasia, on the other hand, is characterized by an overgrowth of cells and an increase in tissue function (Singh & Puckett, 2020). Lastly, atrophy is typically a response to decreased demand or hormonal changes that lead to reduced cell stimulation, while hyperplasia results from excessive cell stimulation, often due to hormonal imbalances (Singh & Puckett, 2020).

Difference between Dysplasia and Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia involves an increase in the number of cells, but these cells are typically normal in appearance and function. Dysplasia, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal growth and development of cells, leading to their size, shape, and organization changes (Nees et al., 2022). Subsequently, dysplastic cells often exhibit varying degrees of cellular atypia, with enlarged nuclei, irregular in shape, and abnormal chromatin patterns. Conversely, hyperplastic cells, while increasing in number, maintain a relatively normal appearance (Nees et al., 2022). Lastly, dysplasia is considered more concerning than hyperplasia because it can be a precursor to cancer, whereas hyperplasia is generally benign and reversible with appropriate treatment (Nees et al., 2022).

Relationship between Hyperplasia and Neoplasia

Benign endometrial hyperplasia does not directly lead to neoplasia. However, it is considered a risk factor for developing endometrial carcinoma. Not all cases of hyperplasia progress to cancer, but some subtypes of hyperplasia, particularly atypical hyperplasia, are more likely to progress to neoplasia if left untreated (Nees et al., 2022). Atypical hyperplasia is characterized by abnormal cellular features and is considered a premalignant condition.


Nees, L. K., Heublein, S., Steinmacher, S., Juhasz-Böss, I., Brucker, S., Tempfer, C. B., & Wallwiener, M. (2022). Endometrial hyperplasia as a risk factor of endometrial cancer. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 1-15.

Singh, G., & Puckett, Y. (2020). Endometrial hyperplasia.


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Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia

Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia

Discussion Prompt

Part 1: Choose a condition from the following case studies: (Week 2 Case Study Details).

Part 2: Select two different students/topics discuss the condition encompassing clinical experiences and critique the post.

A 40-year-old has an endometrial biopsy report:  benign endometrial hyperplasia.

Explain the diagnosis.

Which cells are implicated in this diagnosis?  Compare and contrast atrophy vs. hyperplasia.

How does dysplasia differ from hyperplasia?

Does hyperplasia lead to neoplasia? Defend your answer.

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