Behavior Intervention Plan-Reinforcement and Punishment
Behavior Intervention Plan
After analyzing Terry’s situation, several interventions may be done to ensure his behavior is no longer present. Utilizing the functional behavior evaluation findings in this situation is crucial since it will guarantee that the behavior has been addressed. The goal is for Terry to surrender the iPad so that he can do his homework. This approach could make use of a variety of interventions. They are extinction, time-out, response cost, and punishment.
Punishment is the effect that behavior uses to lessen its occurrence. There are two types of punishment: positive and negative. When an undesirable behavior is displayed, positive punishment involves adding an adverse consequence, and negative punishment involves taking away the reinforcer after the behavior (Cooper et al., 2019). Punishment increases cooperative social behavior. The unwanted side effects of punishment include a rise in retreat and avoidance behaviors while being punished, the occurrence of hostility brought on by punishment, and the emergence of counter-control tactics (Marchant et al., 2019). Positive punishment is appropriate in Terry’s instance. Once the behavior has been demonstrated, Terry’s mother can apply a penalty. Whenever Terry refuses to surrender his tablet, he must also assist with household duties. It will also deter the behavior because Terry dislikes doing housework and foster a setting for learning.
Response cost is a form of negative punishment involving removing tokens. Removing tokens is a form of negative discipline (Bagwell et al., 2022). In this situation, Terry’s parents can remove the iPad from his possession. Once the behavior is displayed, the parents will take away Terry’s iPad and establish rules for when he is allowed to use it.
A time-out is a negative method of behavior control that entails removing a person from a situation where inappropriate conduct has occurred for a brief period. The goal is to exclude that individual from a stimulating, pleasurable setting, which will eventually cause the undesirable behavior to stop (Bagwell et al., 2022). To discourage Terry’s refusal to surrender his iPad when his time to play has expired, the parents may use the time-out technique by taking Terry away from the iPad for a brief time, typically around ten minutes.
Extinction is the slow dilution of a conditioned reflex, which causes the behavior to diminish or vanish. It is a negative reinforcement. When a habit disappears completely, it undergoes spontaneous recovery, but an extinction burst is a brief rise in an otherwise dormant behavior (Marchant et al., 2019). In this case, Terry’s parents should forcefully take the iPad away from Terry and give no response to Terry’s screaming.
Bagwell, A., Barnett, M., & Falcomata, T. S. (2022). Response Cost and Time-Out from Reinforcement. In Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis Interventions for Autism (pp. 479-496). Springer, Cham.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. 2019. Applied Behavior Analysis. 3rd Edition.
Marchant, N. J., Campbell, E. J., Pelloux, Y., Bossert, J. M., & Shaham, Y. (2019). Context-induced relapse after extinction versus punishment: similarities and differences. Psychopharmacology, 236(1), 439-448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4929-1.
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Unit 6 presented a principle of applied behavior analysis (ABA) that is neither reinforcement nor punishment, i.e., extinction. You learned that extinction is a process whereby we extinguish a behavior by withholding the maintaining variable. Identifying the probable function of the behavior – what the individual hopes to gain from expressing a specific behavior – is important to the design of an effective extinction program. You have learned about some of the “side effects” that may be encountered when using extinction procedures, as well as the ethical imperative to always teach and reinforce an appropriate, alternative behavior that can work in much the same way as did the unwanted behavior.
Watch the Unit 6 Lecture. (click here for transcripts)
Read the following scenario.
Wow! It is hard to believe that you have been working as a behavior technician for a very prestigious behavioral company for almost 6-weeks! You love it! So far, your supervisor has assigned you to work with a child who engaged in attention-seeking behavior, an adult who needed an acquisition program to gain skills in doing laundry and cooking and teaching a parent of a 3-year-old some key strategies for addressing non-compliance. This promises to be an exciting day! Your supervisor emailed you that he has a new client for you, and he is going to let you “test your wings” on this one and design the behavior intervention plan (BIP). Your supervisor has already conducted the Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and has determined the probable function of the target behavior to escape from demand, specifically, the demand to relinquish his mother’s iPad at the end of his iPad session.
Terry is allowed to play his video games for 30 minutes after school and for 60 minutes after he has completed his homework. The discriminative stimulus for the target behavior is his mom or dad gently removing the iPad when his game time is up. The operational definition of Terry’s target behavior is: Terry holds onto the iPad, while screaming, “I want to play some more!” He then runs to his bedroom with the iPad and locks his bedroom door.
You know this will be challenging because there are several approaches that could be used, such as response cost, positive punishment, timeout, and extinction. You know how important it is to exhaust all reinforcement strategies first. You are nervous, but you want to prove yourself!
A week has gone by, and you are scheduled to meet with your supervisor to go over the behavior intervention plan you designed for Terry. You are ready for this!
Explain your decision-making process with regard to the different options available to address Terry’s behavior.
Discuss your decision to use a behavior intervention plan (BIP) that includes extinction (Hint: We never implement an extinction program without also teaching an appropriate, alternative behavior and reinforcing it.)
Cover the following in your discussion post for this supervisory meeting (Hint: For your discussion of punishment procedures, refer back to your Unit 5 reading assignments)
Punishment: Discuss the unwanted side effects of punishment, as well as the benefits of punishment. How could positive punishment be used in Terry’s case?
Response Cost: What type of punishment is response cost – negative punishment or positive punishment? What is the procedure for implementing response cost?
Timeout: What type of punishment is timeout? How could timeout be used in Terry’s case?
Extinction: Describe the procedure for implementing extinction. Discuss “extinction bursts” and “spontaneous recovery.”
Summarize the intervention strategies that will be recommended for Terry’s target behavior.