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Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

The effectiveness of healthcare provision is dependent on the establishment of care provision frameworks that are targeted at enhancing the work efficiency of these processes. Healthcare administration has drawn greater interest due to its contributions to efficiency enhancement in care provision processes. Researchers continue to invest in this area of care in an attempt to establish strategies that enhance the efficiency of care processes and ensure the attainment of optimal care outcomes. This paper analyses six pieces of research articles on healthcare administration. These articles present research on issues surrounding healthcare administration, such as policy provisions on healthcare, healthcare costs, and access to healthcare.

Bhatt, J., & Bathija, P. (2018). Ensuring Access to Quality Health Care in Vulnerable Communities. Academic Medicine, 93(9), 1271-1275.

This article is a systematic review that outlines strategies to ensure access to all essential healthcare services among vulnerable communities. Bhatt & Bathija (2018) describe vulnerable communities using the parameters set by the American Hospital Association as communities that exhibit at least one parameter that identifies vulnerable communities. These parameters include poor socioeconomic status, a high number of uninsured or underinsured persons, and persons lacking access to primary healthcare services. This article reviews research on access to healthcare and concludes that designing global budget payments, using inpatient or outpatient transformative strategies, and adopting innovative virtual care strategies enhance access to care.

The article by Bhatt & Bathija (2018) is targeted at enhancing access to care among vulnerable communities. The provisions in this article challenge governmental and individuals initiatives to ensure that the less fortunate members of society receive healthcare services. Several provisions of this article have so far been partially accomplished. Increases in the number of insured American has been seen recently. There has also been an increase in the utility of virtual platforms in care provision.

Access to healthcare has remained a considerable challenge to vulnerable Americans. Despite remaining a priority to many governments, a considerable number of Americans still lack access to primary care services. This research article attempts to solve this periodic problem by presenting an alternative approach to enhancing access to care for these groups. It is for this reason that I chose this article.

Cyr, M., Etchin, A., Guthrie, B., & Benneyan, J. (2019). Access to specialty healthcare in urban versus rural US populations: a systematic literature review. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1).

This article is a systematic review that compares the levels of access to specialty care between urban and rural populations in the US. Cyr et al. (2019) drew their findings from various research articles using internet databases such as Medline and PsychInfo to pool research papers. The author of this article found that barriers to accessing specialty care maintained some similarities between these two populations, with few challenges being attributable to the differences in geography and demography. Such barriers include availability, insurance policies, health organization, and specialty influence.

Access to specialty care in the US is a poorly defined construct with little understanding of the variability in urban and rural access to these services. The author sought to determine any barriers that may be contributory to any difference in access to care. These findings would have also enabled the establishment of a strategic framework to enhance specialty care among rural Americans. The authors, in their conclusion, noted that their findings were aligned with the currently existing frameworks but recommended further exploration into the subject.

Considerable delays and sometimes inaccessibility to specialty care have continuously underlined specialty care in the US healthcare system. For long, many communities have been thought to be having challenges in accessing specialty care. This article debunks any conceptions of differences in access between urban and rural Americans by stating that no preferential barriers exist that disadvantage any of the populations. It is for this reason that I selected this article. It highlights care access between the rural and urban populations.

Dieleman, J., Cao, J., Chapin, A., Chen, C., Li, Z., & Liu, A. et al. (2020). US Health Care Spending by Payer and Health Condition, 1996-2016. JAMA, 323(9), 863.

This article is a quantitative research that is targeted at finding out the extent of increases in healthcare spending in the United States by the payer and by health condition. Dieleman et al. (2020) focused on the commonly presenting health conditions such as pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes. Research findings revealed that healthcare spending in the US spending on healthcare increased considerably for these disorders between 1996 and 2016. Public insurance was found to be the largest payer system in use during the scrutinized years.

The authors of the article established a 3-fold increase in healthcare spending to 3.1 trillion dollars from 1.4 trillion dollars. Dieleman et al. (2020) seeks to establish the trend in spending for various health conditions and the payer system most commonly used in the management of these health conditions. This article gives insight into the most likely causes of healthcare spending in 20 years. According to the research, healthcare spending on the management of chronic disorders such as diabetes and musculoskeletal has increased significantly over time, accounting for the majority of the healthcare spending.

Healthcare spending in the US has considerably increased over the years. Currently, healthcare spending accounts for about 18% of the American economy. Public insurance has remained the major payer system in the US. This article gives an insight into the likely causes of these increases and the strategic frameworks that can be used to reduce healthcare spending. It also reinforces the significance of public insurance in enhancing access to care for Americans. It is for this reason that I selected this article.

Fulton, B. (2017). Health Care Market Concentration Trends In The United States: Evidence And Policy Responses. Health Affairs, 36(9), 1530-1538.

This article is a quantitative research that is targeted at establishing the trend in healthcare market concentration in the US between the years 2010 and 2016. The research focused on physicians’ organizations, health insurers, and hospitals. Fulton. (2017) established that physician organizations and hospital concentration increased significantly between the scrutinized years. Most increases were seen in the number of physician organizations.

The establishment of this research was informed by the increasing concern in estimates of several market concentrations in various economic sectors of the US. This study focused on market concentrations for hospitals, physician organizations, and health insurers. The author highlights the need to impose policies that enhance market competition in these markets places. Such policies include the enforcement of antitrust laws and restriction of anti-competition behaviors and have been pivotal in regulating healthcare markets.

Healthcare market concentration remains of interest to me. The ability of market concentration to enhance access to healthcare underpins its significance. However, regulations are warranted to prevent exploitation and negative competitive habits that may impact it. It is for this reason that policies should be developed that safeguard operations within these markets and prevent client exploitation by these market players.

Papanicolas, I., Woskie, L., & Jha, A. (2018). Health Care Spending in the United States and Other High-Income Countries. JAMA, 319(10), 1024.

This article is a qualitative analysis that identifies potential drivers of healthcare spending in the United States and compares them with the drivers of healthcare spending in other countries. The countries under scrutiny are high-income countries such as Canada, Germany, and France. Potential drivers highlighted in this research are structural capacity and healthcare utilization. Papanicolas et al. (2018) reveal that healthcare spending in the US is higher compared to other high-income countries. The proportion of persons with insurance coverage was also the lowest compared to other countries. This article also compared several health risk determinants, such as smoking, overweight, and obesity.

In as much as the US leads in healthcare spending compared to other high-income countries, little evidence points to the significance of this high spending. These high costs may be attributable to the high cost of medical and pharmaceutical products as well as the cost of healthcare administration. These provided the difference in healthcare spending seen in the study. With discussions around the future of healthcare in the US gaining pace, such studies can be utilized to inform policy decisions on healthcare that may produce the wanted change.

Access to care remains a challenge to the United States despite high spending on healthcare. This research article by Papanicolas et al. (2018) provides a better understanding of the driver of inflated healthcare costs in the US. It also shows inefficiencies in the healthcare systems that may be contributory to these high costs. It is for this reason that this article remains of significance to me.

Yanamadala, S., Morrison, D., Curtin, C., McDonald, K., & Hernandez-Boussard, T. (2018). Electronic Health Records and Quality of Care. Medicine, 95(19), e3332.

This article is a qualitative analysis that outlines the effect of electronic health records on the quality of care. Yanamadala et al. (2018) performed an observational study utilizing the state inpatient databases linked to AHA to determine the level of utilization of the electronic health records and their relation to the mortality rate, the incidence of complications, and readmission rates. Research findings reveal that the lowest mortality and readmission rates were realized in hospitals that had fully integrated the electronic health records system into their mainstream systems.

This research focused on the inpatient patient population who were receiving medical and surgical care. The research was targeted to ascertain the effect of EHR on the quality of care provided for these patients. Findings showed that EHR positively impacted the quality of care in the inpatient management of patients.

Electronic health records have long been thought to be a key enabler of quality enhancement in care provision. Their utility in healthcare systems has remained a subject in health promotional activities. I selected this article because it highlights how these technologies have enhanced the quality of care provision. This article can be used as a basis on which quality enhancement campaigns focusing on health technologies can be based.


Healthcare administration remains a key area in the healthcare system where quality enhancement frameworks can be established. Healthcare administration focuses on healthcare access and costs as well as its regulation. This area remains a special research area in which most of the challenges affecting the healthcare system can be resolved. As highlighted above, several pieces of research have been done that target to solve these issues.


Bhatt, J., & Bathija, P. (2018). Ensuring Access to Quality Health Care in Vulnerable Communities. Academic Medicine93(9), 1271-1275.

Cyr, M., Etchin, A., Guthrie, B., & Benneyan, J. (2019). Access to specialty healthcare in urban versus rural US populations: a systematic literature review. BMC Health Services Research19(1).

Dieleman, J., Cao, J., Chapin, A., Chen, C., Li, Z., & Liu, A. et al. (2020). US Health Care Spending by Payer and Health Condition, 1996-2016. JAMA323(9), 863.

Fulton, B. (2017). Health Care Market Concentration Trends In The United States: Evidence And Policy Responses. Health Affairs36(9), 1530-1538.

Papanicolas, I., Woskie, L., & Jha, A. (2018). Health Care Spending in the United States and Other High-Income Countries. JAMA319(10), 1024.

Yanamadala, S., Morrison, D., Curtin, C., McDonald, K., & Hernandez-Boussard, T. (2018). Electronic Health Records and Quality of Care. Medicine95(19), e3332.


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Submit: Annotated Bibliography

This week culminates in your submission of an annotated bibliography that should consist of an introduction, followed by two quantitative article annotations, two qualitative article annotations, and two mixed methods article annotations for a total of six annotations, followed by a conclusion.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a document containing selected sources accompanied by a respective annotation. Each annotation consists of a summary, analysis, and application for the purpose of conveying the relevance and value of the selected source. As such, annotations demonstrate a writer’s critical thinking about and authority on the topic represented in the sources.

In preparation for your own future research, an annotated bibliography provides a background for understanding a portion of the existing literature on a particular topic. It is also a useful precursor for gathering sources in preparation for writing a subsequent literature review.

Please review the assignment instructions below and click on the underlined words for information about how to craft each component of an annotation.

Please use the document “Annotated Bibliography Template with Example” for additional guidance.

It is recommended that you use the grading rubric as a self-evaluation tool before submitting your assignment.
By Day 7
Use the Walden Library databases to search for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research articles from peer-reviewed journals on your topic of interest.
Before you read the full article and begin your annotation, locate the methodology section in the article to be sure that it describes the appropriate research design.
For quantitative research articles, confirm that a quantitative research design, such as a quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlational, pretest–posttest, or true experimental, was used in the study.
Qualitative research articles confirm that a qualitative research design or approach, such as narrative, ethnographic, grounded theory, case study, or phenomenology, was used in the study.
For mixed methods research articles, confirm that a mixed methods research (MMR) design was used in the study. There are several design classifications in MMR; some examples of MMR types or families of design are parallel, concurrent, sequential, multilevel, or fully integrated mixed methods design.
Prepare an annotated bibliography that includes the following:
A one-paragraph introduction that provides context for why you selected the six research articles you did: two quantitative, two qualitative, and two MMR.
A reference list entry in APA Style for each of the six articles that follows proper formatting. Follow each reference list entry with a three-paragraph annotation that includes:
An application as illustrated in this example
An analysis
A summary
A one-paragraph conclusion that presents a synthesis of the six articles.
Format your annotated bibliography in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment.

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