Analyzing Arizona’s Language Development Approach
According to the Arizona English Learner policy, an English learner is a child whose inherent language is not English and who cannot speak English (Office of English Language Acquisition Services, 2021). Moreover, they are unable to carry out common classroom tasks in English.
The distinctions between the following instructional program models: ESL, bilingual, sheltered English instruction, and structured English immersion (SEI)
Structured English Immersion (SEI) refers to an English course taught by a licensed tutor in bilingual tutelage and English second language education; the tutor is conversant with the learners’ custom tongue (Office of English Language Acquisition Services, 2021). Additionally, students can use their first language to interact and learn even though the teacher can only use English.
In sheltered English instruction, learners are taught English content by a licensed content tutor. However, the content and instructions are modified to fit the learners’ English proficiency levels. Ultimately the instructions promote English language development.
English Second Language (ESL) alludes to content taught by a licensed ESL instructor.
The ESL instructor can relate with the students as he takes them through the course in English (Office of English Language Acquisition Services, 2021). Students develop their English language by engaging in English tasks and activities throughout the course. The instructor takes into account the challenges the students may face.
In bilingual education, the learners have a combined language system, with the tutors using the native tongue for a section of the day and proficient English for the rest of the day. The proficient English section comprises English as second language classes, content, and instructors. Notably, with increased proficiency, the native language sessions are reduced.
Arizona’s Language Development Approach and the Synthesis of the Research around ELLs.
Arizona’s development approach adapts an equitable view of all Arizona’s English learners. According to the Office of English Language Acquisition Services (2021), the approach encompasses ways and methods that guide English learning content designs and presentations throughout the learning cycle. Additionally, the approach connects the practices and subject matter for all instructional models. Finally, it presents how instructors present literacy, language, and educative practices for different English learners. The state uses a resident language survey and English tests to identify the eligibility of English Language learners.
English Language Learners have decreased over the years in Arizona. The program is funded by federal and state governments, with a large chunk acquired from the State of Arizona.
The student agency and its importance in the instruction of ELLs
Student agency is the interest and active drive toward defining one’s goals and outcomes from the English language learners’ program. Student agency helps learners overcome their challenges in learning English (MindShift, 2016). Such challenges may include ethnic and cultural backgrounds and economic and speech challenges. Overcoming one’s challenges also leads to prosperity in other aspects of life.
Principles of Arizona’s Language Development Approach
Asset-Based Behaviors and Expectations
The principle and approach focus on a student’s strength in their diversity and culture.
The instructors must assess, understand, and appreciate the ELL students’ strengths and build on them. Their positive experiences can be used as interesting examples in class, and activities and tasks can be organized in their cultural settings.
Integrated Instructions in Disciplinary Content and Language
This principle promotes a learner’s critical and thoughtful approach to what they learn. This is achieved in oral and written modes in an area of interest and discipline. Understanding one’s environment and settings also allows one to produce thoughtful and critical content in targeted and Explicit Language Instruction.
Instructors must have a specific, direct, informative, and learner-friendly approach to delivering their content. With explicit instructions and content, the learners comprehend the lessons much quicker.
Assessment, Mentoring, and Feedback
A key aspect of reviewing, improving, and providing learners with updated information, content, and criticism. The instructors should engage the learners consistently, which helps them grow their ideas and understanding.
Components of Arizona’s approved research-based SEI models:
The newcomer model requires specialized and explicit instructions and content for starting-level learners. These learners include immigrants to the United States and Arizona. How much time understudies spend in a Newcomer Program shifts in the day-to-day timetable and program length, relying upon the specific area model (Office of English Language Acquisition Services, 2021). The locale should lay out clear rules for when understudies are to move out of the Newcomer Program and into the customary English language improvement program.
Pull-out requires learners to have separate sessions with instructors after the common English as a second language course. She proposed ten hours per week with the instructors to help them catch up and expedite the learning understanding and progress.
The two-hour model requires 100 English lessons (6-12) or 120 minutes (K-5). The primary instructors engage with the students consistently throughout the daily sessions.
50-50 Dual Language Immersion
This model refers to equal time given to the native and English languages. The content is standardized for all disciplines to avoid redundancy (California Association for Bilingual Education, 2017).
California Association for Bilingual Education. (2017). 50:50 MODEL – CABE dual language immersion planning guide. CABE Dual Language Immersion Planning Guide.
Retrieved August 7, 2022, from https://di.gocabe.org/get-started/program-and- implementation-models/di-program-models/5050-model/
MindShift. (2016, April 4). How to cultivate student agency in English language learners.
KQED. Retrieved August 7, 2022, from https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/43376/how-to- cultivate-student-agency-in-English-language-learners
Office of English Language Acquisition Services. (2021, June 29). Arizona’s language development approach: An overview [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Do2zZyCJWWc
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Arizona’s instructional program for English language learners is based on four principles called Arizona’s Language Development Approach. According to the Arizona Department of Education, these principles are based on the core idea that “all educators share the responsibility for promoting the success of English learners.”
Part 1: Terminology
- Explain Arizona’s definition of an English learner (EL).
- Briefly discuss the distinctions between the following instructional program models: ESL, bilingual, sheltered English instruction, and structured English immersion (SEI).
Part 2: Four Principles of Arizona’s Language Development Approach
- Briefly describe Arizona’s Language Development Approach and the synthesis of the research around ELLs.
- Explain student agency and its importance in the instruction of ELLs.
- Explain each of the four principles of Arizona’s Language Development Approach.
- Discuss components of Arizona’s approved research-based SEI models: Newcomer, Pull-Out, Two Hour, 50-50 Dual Language Immersion.
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