Analysis of Variance
I am writing to appeal my dismissal from the nursing program of (…) University. I am aware that I have failed two classes in this program, having scored below grade C in both of these classes. I want to admit my failure in these units and express my disappointment in this regard. I am writing this appeal letter hoping you will consider it and reinstate me into this program. I thank the administration for giving me an opportunity to explain my case via this appeal.
While I acknowledge that failure is not an excuse, I admit that these two classes presented considerable difficulties to me. I attribute my failure in these two classes to the circumstances around the examination period. Being a 36-year-old single mother with two kids, juggling between my classwork, taking care of my kids, and daycare proved rather difficult. This was made worse when my kids and I tested positive for Covid 19. These activities consumed a lot of time that I would have rather used in classwork. I want to report that I took significant steps to catch up on my classwork and have been working with a nurse tutor since October to reinforce my knowledge in these classes. I can now say that I am confident and adequately understand the concepts in these classes. I also do very well in my clinical.
I am very passionate about nursing, and I would wish to attain my dream of becoming a nurse. It is for this reason that I am appealing to be reinstated into the nursing program. I promise to work harder throughout the course. I will maintain focus in my studies, minimize distractions to my coursework, allocate more time for my studies and continue working with nurse tutors and my instructors to reinforce my knowledge of various nursing concepts.
I assure my commitment to this course and will ensure that a repeat of this does not occur. I have been a great student and have always been excellent in my coursework, these two classes just being an exception. I hope that you will consider my appeal and grant me another opportunity. Thanks for considering this appeal.
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Assignment: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
In Week 4, you explored t-tests, which allowed you to compare a sample to a population or compare two groups to one another. For example, you might want to compare the effectiveness of two types of treatment for insomnia, but what if you want to compare the effectiveness of more than two groups? A one-way analysis of variance, or ANOVA, allows you to do just that—compare multiple groups (called levels) of one independent variable (called a factor). For example, in a study about insomnia treatments, you might compare a level that receives muscle relaxation training to a second level that receives visualization training and, finally, to a third level that receives deep-breathing training. An ANOVA allows you to compare all of the levels at once to see if, in general, the type of treatment influences how long it takes to fall asleep. If results are statistically significant, post hoc analyses then provide even more information by identifying which specific levels differ from one another, ultimately showing you which specific treatments are more effective than others.
This application will allow you to continue your practice with hypothesis testing by comparing scores with ANOVA in order to determine if the results are statistically significant. Download the data set that you will use for this Assignment from the Weekly Data Set forum found in the Discussions area of the course navigation menu. Be sure to watch this week’s instructional video in the introduction or Learning Resources folder before beginning your Assignment.
Scenario: Imagine that a psychologist working with veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder wants to compare the effectiveness of several therapies focused on reducing symptoms of anxiety. The psychologist randomly sampled 20 veterans who recently returned from combat and randomly assigned each of them to receive one of four interventions for 8 weeks. A survey was used to measure the participants’ anxiety at the end of the 8 weeks. Higher anxiety scores indicate more anxiety. You can find the data for this Assignment in the Weekly Data Set forum found on the course navigation menu.
By Day 7
To complete this Assignment, submit answers to the following. Use SPSS to compare the mean anxiety scores with a one-way ANOVA.
1. Before computing any analyses, state the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis in words (not formulas).
2. Identify the factor and dependent variable.
3. Name the levels of the factor.
4. State the degrees of freedom between groups and explain how you calculated it by hand.
5. State the degrees of freedom within groups and explain how you calculated it by hand.
6. Identify the obtained F value using SPSS and report it in your answer document.
7. Identify the p-value using SPSS and report it in your answer document.
8. Explain whether the F test is statistically significant. Explain how you know.
9. Explain what the psychologist can conclude about the relationship between different types of therapy and anxiety before conducting post hoc tests.
10. Should the psychologist conduct a post hoc test? Why or why not? If post hoc testing is needed, conduct a Tukey HSD post hoc analysis in SPSS. Explain what the results tell you.
Be sure to fully explain the rationale for your answer to each question, including evidence from the text and Learning Resources.
Provide an APA reference list.
Submit three documents for grading:
• Your text (Word) document with your answers and explanations to the assignment questions, your SPSS Data file, and your SPSS Output file.
Weekly data set
• Anxiety scores for 5 veterans who received behavioral therapy
• Anxiety scores for 5 veterans who received cognitive therapy
• Anxiety scores for 5 veterans who received biofeedback therapy
• Anxiety scores for 5 veterans who received medication therapy
Heiman, G. (2015). Behavioral sciences STAT (2nd ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage.
• Chapter 11, “Hypothesis Testing Using the One-Way Analysis of Variance” (pp. 184–199)
• Chapter 12, “Understanding the Two-Way Analysis of Variance” (pp. 202–214)
• Chapter 11, Review Card SPSS Instructions (p. 11.4)
Laureate Education (Producer). (2015h). One-way ANOVA [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author
Laureate Education (Producer). (2015r). Two-way ANOVA [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
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